The Implementation Process: Managing People. William Tibben SITACS University of Wollongong. October 2002. Overview. What kind of skills do we require of the manager during implementation ? The art of Conflict Management Coping with diversity of people and situations.
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The Implementation Process: Managing People William Tibben SITACS University of Wollongong. October 2002
Overview • What kind of skills do we require of the manager during implementation? • The art of Conflict Management • Coping with diversity of people and situations
Essential Question 1.(Courtesy of Commworks, 2001) • What is the timeline for networkdeployment?
Essential Question 2 - Does your budget support the timeline? Work package cost estimate Gray & Larson, 2000, Figure 3-8
$6,000 5,000 4,000 Costs 3,000 2,000 Committed Actual cost 1,000 Scheduled budget Project Duration Essential Question 2 - Does your budget support the timeline? Gray & Larson, 2000, Figure 3-9
Complete project 1 Project Major deliverables 2 Deliverable Supporting deliverables Subdeliverable 3 Lowest managementresponsibility level 4 Lowest subdeliverable Grouping of work packagesfor monitoring progress andresponsibility 5 Cost account* Work package Identifiable work activities Essential Question 3 - Have you accounted for all tasks required to deploy the network? Gray & Larson, 2000, Figure 3-3
Personal computerprototype Level1 Moreitems 1.0 1.3 1.1 1.4 1.2 Vendor,software,applications Mouse,keyboard,voice Microprocessorunit Diskstorageunits 2 1.4.1 1.4.2 ~ ~ 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 Internalmemoryunit BIOS (basicinput/outputsystem) 3 Floppy Optical Hard ~ ~ 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 4 RAM ROM I/O File Utilities ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Lowest manageablesubdeliverables 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 5 Chassisframe Circuitboard Read/writehead Motor Cost accountnumber Cost 22.214.171.124.1 account Cost Cost account account Cost Cost account account Cost account Cost account Design Manufacturing Production Work packages WP126.96.36.199.2.1 WP188.8.131.52.2.2 WP184.108.40.206.2.3 Organization Test Purchasing Budget byperiod Software Gray & Larson, 2000, Figure 3-3
Essential Question 4 - Who will do the work required to deploy the network?
Essential Question 5 - Do you have a strong Project Manager in place to coordinate aspects of deployment?
Essential Question 6 - Who will manage all of the vendors needed for deployment?
Scenario • Project manager Jack was a degree qualified engineer who demonstrated what not to do as a project manager. On the surface he appeared as a well organised manager who provided sufficient amounts of documentation in terms of drawings, project schedules, as well as very detailed instructions what technicians and tradespeople needed to do. Despite this, one feature of Jack’s projects were the constant complaints from those carrying out the tasks. It was not uncommon for these problems to escalate to such a stage where meetings had to be arranged with the section manager where Jack and the other party wereunwilling to compromise.As a consequence his projects went over schedule and budget.
What was the problem? • Who was at fault? • What strategies could Jack have employed to avoid these problems?
Implementation Plan • Gene told you last week… • The implementation plan is the single greatest point of failure of many technology strategies • A successful plan should incorporate various components and should be highly detailed, controlled and monitored
Definition (from lecture 4) • ‘…Implementation Planning ensures the compatibility of the planning and budgeting processes to support …[strategic goals]…It prescribes commensurate milestones, resource requirements, schedules and performance criteria at both the program and task levels…’ (NASA, 1996)
Implementation Planning is an Information Intensive Process • Implementation Planning (Gray and Larson, 2002, p.89) • provides the basis of scheduling labour and equipment; • determines how much money is required • becomes an instrument that melds managers and groups together into meeting time, cost and performance objectives • answers the question how long is it going to take?
The most current state of the work to be done is represented by the Implementation Plan The Documents found in prototypical implementation plans include: Deliverables Document Work Statements Sign-Off Sheets Schedule Problem Log Test Plan Implementation Management Teams Problem Reports Change Log Change Request Configuration Management Implementation Resource Requirements Implementation Plan Documents
Implementation Planning is an Information Intensive Process There is a need to communicate both • the detail • the vision
Back to Project Manager Jack… • Project manager Jack was a degree qualified engineer who demonstrated what not to do as a project manager. On the surface he appeared as a well organised manager who provided sufficient amounts of documentation in terms of drawings, project schedules, as well as very detailed instructions what technicians and tradespeople needed to do. Despite this, one feature of Jack’s projects were the constant complaints from those carrying out the tasks. It was not uncommon for these problems to escalate to such a stage where meetings had to be arranged with the section manager where Jack and the other party wereunwilling to compromise.As a consequence his projects went over schedule and budget.
Conflict is inevitable and must be managed correctly • ‘…The ability to manage conflict is one of the most important skills a project manager must possess…’ (Verma, 1996, p. 113) • Conflict can become either • a positive force that will propel the project to meetings its stated objectives or • A degenerative process of negative interaction between team members that slows the project down.
Styles of Conflict (Filley’s Model) (Verma, 1996, p123)
Styles of Conflict –Project Failure/Success* (Verma, 1996, p123)
In search of the ‘golden bullet’ • Filley’s model tells us that relationship maintenance is at the heart of long term success in project management • On the other hand, Robbins tells us that if you are surrounded by “yes” people and the emphasis is too much on compromise and not on project goals you may need to introduce “conflict”.
Conflict as a positive force • Evidence of • Problem solving • Collaboration • Compromise
Conflict as a negative force • Evidence of • Disengagement • Poor communication • Poor coordination • Project milestones not achieved
Strategies for managing conflict • Active listening – you must be in a position of understanding all arguments • This has the potential of sapping the emotional energy from the debate because people feel that they have had their say and have been understood.
Strategies for managing conflict • Look for win-win solutions • Aim not to punish dissenters who have high commitment to the project. There may be room for both. • Separate warring individuals/groups by • Having separate work areas • Assigned to different aspects of the project
Concrete Experience Mary Hans Accommodator Diverger Reflective Observation Active Experimentation Xao Converger Assimilator Ting Will Abstract Conceptualisation Strategies for managing conflict • Structured conflict - build teams that have complementary skills
Strategies for managing conflict • Structured conflict – promote competition between teams • E.g. Weekly competition to see who accomplishes most milestones
Strategies for managing conflict • Separate individuals from the problem situation • Eg “If I had efficient staff the project would be finished on time!” – The emphasis here is on the person rather than the schedule slippage
Strategies for managing conflict • Build on strengths (allocate tasks that the individual is good at) • Minimise impact of weaknesses – be realistic about what the individual is able to achieve • Training - develop new understanding in the minds of colleagues to enable them to better work with available information
Leaders focus on Vision Selling what and why Longer range People Democracy Enabling Developing Challenging Originating Innovating Directing Policy Managers focus on Objectives Telling how and when Shorter range Organisation & structure Autocracy Restraining Maintaining Conforming Imitating Administering Controlling Procedures Leadership and Management (revisited from Lecture 5)
Leaders focus on Flexibility Risk (opportunity) Top line Managers focus on Consistency Risk (avoidance) Bottom line (Verma, 1996, p. 223) Leadership and Management cont’d How does one make sensible use of such a list of attributes?
Is There Only One Good Leadership Style? • Opinion is divided between two types of a leadership style: • concern for Task and • concern for People • Concern for tasks is where leaders define their role in terms of the goals of the organisation • Concern for people is where leaders promoted mutual trust, respect and concern for the feelings of others.
Is There Only One Good Leadership Style? • The big draw back with concentrating on style is that it takes no account of the situation managers are working in • ie. kind of tasks, • the competency of staff • attitudes of staff, • the knowledge and attitudes of the manager him/herself etc….
The approach that works best for me… • In times of conflict you as the project manager have two choices • 1. Change the behaviour of individuals • 2. Change the contingent circumstances • The emphasis is often on 1. • While 2. may be easier and more effective.
1. Change individual behaviour • Training • Counselling • Forcing (threaten dire consequences)
2. Change Contingent Circumstances • leader-member relations – promoting better informal relations with staff, • task structure – negotiate greater responsibility for tasks – promote ownership of the project • position power – delegating decision making to subordinates
Summary • Conflict is inevitable • The skilful manager harnesses the potential of conflict to promote project goals. • The ‘win-at-all-costs’ manager is likely to promote disengagement and poor project outcomes
References • Gray, Clifford F and Larson, Erik W. 2000, Project management : the managerial process / Irwin/McGraw-Hill,Boston. • NASA, 1996 ‘NASA Strategic Management Handbook’, NASA. Available at: http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/codez/strahand/implemen.htm Accessed on: 12 August 2002 • Karunaratne, Ishan 2002, ‘Callista Implementation Project’, Northern Territory University, Available from: http://mindil.ntu.edu.au/ntu/apps/callistaimp.nsf/vwURL/Implementation+Planning?OpenDocument Accessed; on 12 August 2002 • Commworks, 2001, ‘As you Implement: Planning for Deployment’. Commworks Available from http://www.commworks.com/Professional_Services/Implement/Planning_Deployment/ Accessed on 12 August 2002. • GCRHCorporation 2002, ‘Implementation Planning: When its Got to be Appropriate, Now’, GCRHCorporation, Midland Michigan. Available from http://www.rightanswer.com/english/plan.html Access on 12 August 2002.