Mdt. sprogproduktion English Prosody
Agenda • Brief survey of the ground you’ve already covered • English prosody • Assignment Four • Hand in print copy April 26, 9 am. • Feedback April 29, 9-11 pm.
What you’ve already done • The sound segments of English (consonants and vowels) • Vowels in unaccented syllables • The articulation of simple words
So far aId laIk tə baI ə hæmbɜ:gə
What you’re going to do today • Suprasegmentals: the sound effects that exist over and across the individual sound segments. • Tonetic or interlinear transsciption
What you’re going to do next time • The rhetorical structures of meaning in presentations
Suprasegmentals: the sound effects that exist over and across the individual sound segments. Phonetic and tonetic (interlinear) transscription: . . . . . .. . /aId laIk tə baI ə hæmbɜ:gə/
Accent (the prominence of a syllable relative to other syllables in an utterance): Stress Tone movement and pitch level Vowel length Vowel quality Intonation: Pitch level Pitch range Suprasegmentals: Prosody
Accent • Produced by four factors: • Stress: articulatory energy and auditory loudness • Tone movement and pitch level • Vowel length • Vowel quality
Word accent Sentence accent and rhythm Accent
Word accent Accent has a distinctive function: Conduct Dictate Object Protest Suspect . . /prətest/ . . /prəʊtest/ Accent
Four kinds of sentence accent • Primary accent: dynamic tonal prominence, strong stress • Secondary accent: static tonal prominence and stress • Tertiary accent: stress, distinct vowel quality or length • No accent: absence of stress and blurred or lacking vowel quality.
Four kinds of sentence accent . . . . . .. . aId laIk tə baI ə hæmbɜ:gə
The tone group • ”[…] a section of speech containing one peak of prominence in the form of a syllable pronounced with tone glide and strong stress (i.e. with primary accent)” (113) • ”The nucleus is the part of the tone group which is most important in content. Its function is to express what the teacher chooses to make the main point of his meaasage.” (115)
Four kinds of sentence accent (pp. 108-109) • You ought to be more co-operative, mister • But he was spry and cheerful • He ran through the forest frenziedly • The food was elegant and expensive • It’s fun to jump in the sun • What would you like for lunch?
Three functions: Attitudinal: expresses attitude Grammatical: expresses meanings signalled syntactically Segmental: accoustic units of meaning Three functions: A dog, a dog?, a dog! You have a cold(?) Example p. 112 Intonation and meaning
Intonation and meaning: basic patterns • Declarative sentences • Yes-no questions • Wh-questions • Imperatives • Exclamations
Patterns: Declarative sentences Yes-no questions Wh-questions Imperatives Exclamations Norms: Falling Rising, falling-rising Falling Falling Falling Intonation and meaning: basic patterns and norms
Certainty / uncertainty as to yes or no Kindness / unkindness Completeness / incompleteness Falling Rising Falling-rising Intonation and meaning
Examples • So you’re a writer? • I’ve never heard of you. • Have you had anything published? • Oh really? • What kind of things do you write? • Stuff you make up? • To avoid discovery I stay on the run. • To discover things for myself I stay on the run
Assignment Four • Hand in print copy April 26, 9 am. • Feedback April 29, 9-11 pm.