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ELECTROMAGNETIC CANNON - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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ELECTROMAGNETIC CANNON. Question. A solenoid can be used to fire a small ball. A capacitor is used to energize the solenoid coil. Build a device with a capacitor charged to a maximum 50V. Investigate the relevant parameters and maximize the speed of the ball. Outline. Experimental setup

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Question

  • A solenoid can be used to fire a small ball. A capacitor is used to energize the solenoid coil. Build a device with a capacitor charged to a maximum 50V.
  • Investigate the relevant parameters and maximize the speed of the ball.
outline
Outline
  • Experimental setup
  • Experimental procedure
  • Typical result
  • Statistics and explanation
  • Relative parameters
experimental procedure
Experimental Procedure
  • Charge the capacitor five times longer than its time constant.
  • Connect the capacitor to the solenoid.
  • Measure the distance the bar flies to estimate the initial speed.
  • Repeat the procedure above.
slide7

Qualitative Explanation

  • The “steel” ball is magnetized, with the same direction as the magnetic field in the solenoid.
    • Faraday’s Law
    • Curie’s Law
slide8

Why It Moves

  • A magnetic dipole in magnetic field tends to move toward where the magnetic potential is less (i.e. the middle of the solenoid)‏
    • Magnetic domain model
    • Loop model
slide9

How Fast It Moves

  • The magnetic field is associated with the discharging process of the capacitor, and the position of the ball.
  • The dipole moment is associated with the changing rate of the magnetic field, and the magnetization of the ball.
parameters
Parameters
  • Voltage
  • Solenoid
    • Length
    • Layer
    • Diameter (→Inductance)
  • Capacitance
  • Resistance (→frequency)‏
  • Magnetic field
  • Ball
    • Magnetic permeability
    • Resistance
    • Mass
    • Shape
    • Initial position
experiment i
Experiment I
  • Speed vs. Voltage
    • Parameter : Voltage (from 30V ~50V)‏
    • Initial Condition :
      • Capacitance: 1470μF
      • Number of Layers: 5 layers
      • Length: 1.5 cm
      • Position of Cannon: In front of the solenoid (0 mm)‏
      • Mass: 0.014 g
voltage
Voltage
  • Speed is positively related to the voltage.
experiment ii
Experiment II
  • Speed vs. Capacitance
    • Parameter : Capacitance (from 470μF to 3300μF)‏
    • Initial Condition :
      • Voltage: 50 V
      • Number of Layers: 5 layers
      • Length: 1.5 cm
      • Position of Cannon: In front of the solenoid (0 mm)‏
      • Mass: 0.014 g
capacitance
Capacitance
  • A peak occurs at 1470 μF.
experiment iii

1.5 cm

6

8

7

4

5

3

2

1

Experiment III
  • Speed vs. Number of Layers
    • Parameter : Number of layers (4~8 layers)‏
    • Initial Condition :
      • Voltage: 50 V
      • Capacitance: 1470 μF
      • Length: 1.5 cm
      • Position of Cannon: In front of the solenoid (0 mm)‏
      • Mass: 0.014 g
numbers of layers
Numbers of Layers
  • A peak occurs at 5 layers.
experiment iv
Experiment IV
  • Speed vs. Solenoid length
    • Parameter : Length (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 cm)‏
    • Initial Condition :
      • Voltage: 50 V
      • Capacitance: 1470 μF
      • Number of Layers: 5 cm
      • Position of Cannon: In front of the solenoid (0 mm)‏
      • Mass: 0.014 g
length
Length
  • A peak occurs at 1.5 cm.
experiment v
Experiment V
  • Speed vs. Position
    • Parameter : Position (0~10 mm)‏
    • Initial Condition :
      • Voltage: 50 V
      • Capacitance: 3700 μF
      • Length: 1.0 cm
      • Mass: 0.083 g
position
Position
  • Speed reaches maximum when the ball is at the front of the solenoid.
summary
Summary
  • The fastest speed we achieve is 31.4 m/s, which happens under
    • V=50 V
    • C=1470 μF
    • Layers=5
    • Solenoid Length=1.5 cm
    • Position: At the front
    • Ball mass=0.014g
    • Material: Iron
summary1
Summary
  • In this case, energy stored in the capacitor is 1.84 J.
  • Energy transferred to the projectile is 6.91*10-3 J.
  • Ratio=3.76*10-3