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The End of WWI. When/Where are we?. When/Where are we?. A truly Global War. While the war took place mostly in Europe, there was action elsewhere (Africa, the Middle East, Asia)

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a truly global war
A truly Global War
  • While the war took place mostly in Europe, there was action elsewhere (Africa, the Middle East, Asia)
  • More importantly, thousands of Indians, Canadians, Australians, and Africans fought for their respective “mother” countries
fall of germany
Fall of Germany
  • At the beginning of the war, Britain & the other Allies established a naval blockade of Germany; this blockade really effected the German war effort after 1916
  • Germany knocked Russia out of the war in 1917, which seemed like a huge blow to the Triple Entente
  • However, the U.S. Entered the war in 1916, & the Austrian & Ottoman Empires were increasingly weak & unhelpful to Germany
  • German forces retreated back to Germany, & the government signed an armistice on 11/11/1918
casualty list
Casualty List
  • Britain: 947,000 dead, over 2 million wounded
  • France: 1.3 million dead, 3 million wounded
  • Russia: 1.7 million dead, 5 million wounded
  • Italy: 460,000 dead, 1 million wounded
  • U.S.A.: 115,000 dead, 206,000 wounded
  • Germany: 1.8 million dead, 4.2 million wounded
  • Austria: 1.2 million dead, 3.6 million wounded
  • Ottoman: 325,000 dead, 400,000 wounded
  • TOTAL: ~10 million dead, ~20 million wounded
russia the u s
Russia & the U.S.
  • Russia does poorly in the war, leading to revolution
  • The Bolshevik Revolution takes place in 1917, making Russia communist
  • The Bolsheviks eventually kill the Tsar & his family, and form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
  • The USA enters the war in 1916 due to Germany sinking so many US ships with their U-boats
  • The USA is able to tip the balance in the Allies’ favor, & takes a greater role on the world stage
other results
Other Results
  • Empires disintegrate: Austro-Hungarian Empire, Ottoman Empire, & Russian Empire end after WWI
  • Balfour Declaration of 1917: an official endorsement from the British government to find a “home” for Jews (would lead to the founding of Israel in 1948)
  • League of Nations founded in 1919
  • Japan rose in power, Germany was disgraced
  • Triple Entente gained more colonies in the M.E. & Africa (took them from Triple Alliance countries)
treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles
  • Signed June 28, 1919
  • Germany: forced to accept blame for war (is this strange?), stripped of colonies & some European territories, not allowed to have much of a military, & forced to pay war reparations
  • Treaty formed the League of Nations in hopes nations could avoid war
  • U.S. President Woodrow Wilson proposed his “Fourteen Points” hoping for “peace without victory” but the Allies refused
optimism
Optimism
  • Though there was great disillusionment following WWI, there was also a feeling of optimism in the West in the 1920s
  • Women had worked in factories while the men were fighting & felt more empowered once the war ended; Britain, Germany & the U.S. gave women suffrage in the ‘20s
  • Western economies boomed as soldiers returned to peacetime jobs, factories began mass-producing consumer goods, & wartime taxes were decreased
new inventions products
New Inventions/Products
  • Henry Ford’s Model T automobile sold millions in the 1920s; cars transformed everything from rural isolation to teenage dating habits
  • Radios became much more widespread
  • Consumer items like shaving cream, ice boxes, stoves, etc. were more readily available & in use
  • Mass production led to mass consumption of new products
1920s art
1920s Art
  • Music: Jazz began in African-American communities in the southern US & spread throughout the US & Europe
  • The “Lost Generation”: group of writers & artists who were very cynical & pessimistic due to the loss of innocence in WWI (Ernest Hemingway)
  • Picasso’s cubist paintings become popular
  • “Talkies” became very popular; “Jazz Singer” was the first
other events
Other events
  • Prohibition in the US: alcohol is banned, leading to a boom in illegal bars (the “speakeasy) and organized crime
  • Charles Lindberg (an American) makes the first solo flight across the Atlantic
  • Small signs of trouble: Benito Mussolini seizes power in Italy in 1922
  • End of the 1920s: NY Stock Exchange crashes in October 1929, ending the “boom” & ushering in the Great Depression