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The End of WWI

The End of WWI

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The End of WWI

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  1. The End of WWI

  2. American Expeditionary Force (1) • Argument over whether the US troops should be its own army or scattered amongst the French and British troops • General John J. Pershing was against scattering the soldiers and also demanded giving the volunteers training before fighting • He was allowed to give 3 months of intense training

  3. Russia leaves the War • November 1917 the Bolsheviks overthrew the Russian government led by Vladimir Lenin • Communist- equal distribution of wealth and the end of all forms of private property (2) • Russia was falling apart both militarily and economically (3) • 8 million Russians had died or were ruined during the war • Soldiers were deserting • Food riots raged because of lack of food (which was saved for the soldiers)

  4. Russian Leaving • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was between Russia and the Central Power • A Civil War broke out between the Communists and the czar (monarchy) supporters • The Allies sent aid to support the czar supporters, but Russia was out of the war.

  5. The End Begins (4) • Because of Russia’s removal, Germany was able to send all their troops from the eastern front to the western front in an attempt to smash the Western front • While Germany was pushing forward, the US forces finally joined the fight • March 21, 1918- Germany began to attack blasting 6,000 heavy guns at Allied troops along the Somme River

  6. The End continued (5) • Germany drove 40 miles into the Allied lines • They attacked the Marne River and were able to push forward to Paris • However, the Americans joined the French, and added energy and vigor, which the Germans weren’t expecting • Germans were stopped 50 miles from Paris, and the Allies were able to slowly drive them back

  7. Turning Point of the War • Convoy system- Protected shipping, the merchant ships began to travel in groups with destroyers protecting them (6) • July 1918 the Germans made a last ditch attempt to get to Paris across the Marne River, but were pushed back • September 1918- the Allies won battles at Saint Mihiel on the border of France and Germany and also along the Meurse River and in the Argonne Forest near the Belgium border

  8. Turning Point Continued • November 1918- Allies were making rapid advances to Germany • Examples of US bravery • Alvin York- October 1918- killed 25 and captured 132 prisoners (5) • Harlem Hellfighters- African American soldiers of the 269th Infantry saw the most combat time of the American soldiers and were the first the reach the Rhine River/German Border • Because of this the were awarded the Cross of War by the French

  9. Armistice (7 & 8) • Germany tired of war • Food was scarce (800 civilians died each day from starvation) • Food strikes and riots occurred • Running out of soldiers (killed, wounded, and captured) • Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire surrendered in the Fall of 1918 • Austria-Hungary signed peace agreement on November 3 • Kaiser Wilhelm II (Leader of Germany) gave up his throne and fled to the Netherlands • The fighting officially ended the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918

  10. Costs of War (9) • Massive Casualties • Entire generation of young men are dead • Total: 8.5 million, 5 million Allied, 3.5 million Central Powers • France- 90% of their young men served in WWI, and 7 out of 10 were killed or wounded • US- 116,000 dead and 200,000 wounded

  11. Costs of War continued (9) • Financial Disaster to much of Europe • Factories and Farmland is in ruins • $30 billion worth of property was destroyed • Allies spent $145 billion on the war • Central Powers spent $63 billion on the war • EVERYONE is in debt

  12. Influenza Epidemic (10) • 1918 worldwide epidemic • Was around for 2 years • Killed approx. 30 million people- more than the War itself • Started in a Kansas Army Training camp, and spread rapidly • Went from soldiers to civilians and eventually to Europe • Killed many who were young and strong (that were left from the war) • Quarantines were attempted to stop the spread- no public gatherings (including school classes)- were instituted in many places

  13. Ideas for Peace • Wilson’s Fourteen Points (11) • Specific proposals for postwar peace • Points would settle national border disputes, military cutbacks, lower tariffs, banned secret agreements, and allowed for self-determination (settlement for colonial people who wished to be independent- i.e. no longer a colony, and chose their own political status) • Last (and biggest) Idea was the League of Nations- which was an international assembly of nations whose focus was to settle international disputes and encourage democracy (12) • Only point agreed to in the peace treaty was the League of Nations

  14. Paris Peace Conference • Only France, UK, Italy, and the US were allowed to attend- no one from Russia or the Central Powers (13) • Allied leaders defended their own interests and wanted to severely punish Germany • War Guilt Clause- demanded that Germany take entire blame for WWI (14) • Demanded reparations (money to the winners) • Took large parts of Germany’s territory- both colonies and parts of actual Germany • Limited Germany’s military

  15. Treat of Versailles (14) • Signed by France, Britain, and Italy • League of Nations was established • Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia became their own countries • Central Powers turned their colonies over to League of Nations who assigned them to the other European Countries • Wilson reluctantly agreed to it hoping that while the other points were rejected, that the League of nations would solve the remaining problems

  16. PROBLEMS????? • Do you think that there would be any future problems that come because of the Treaty of Versailles?

  17. US Response (15) • Constitutionally, the US Senate still had to ratify the Versailles Treaty before it was official for the US • Wilson could not get 2/3rds of the Senate to agree to ratify • Republicans dissatisfied with the fact that Germany agreed to it • “No peace that satisfies Germany in any degree can ever satisfy us” • Demanded changes to the Treaty (mainly to League of Nations ability to use military force) before ratification

  18. Wilson refused to compromise and tried to pressure the Republicans • Wilson demanded that the Democrats not agree to the changes • Neither party would compromise, and the Treaty of Versailles was defeated • US made separate peace treaties with each of the Central Powers and never joined the League of Nations (15)