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End of WWI. Key notes. Allies Win the War. When the US joined the war on April 6 th , 1917, the Allies gained a key advantage. Nov. 1917 – Russian Revolution lead to Russia leaving the war by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (peace treaty between Russia and Germany)

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end of wwi

End of WWI

Key notes

allies win the war
Allies Win the War
  • When the US joined the war on April 6th, 1917, the Allies gained a key advantage.
  • Nov. 1917 – Russian Revolution lead to Russia leaving the war by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (peace treaty between Russia and Germany)
    • Under the treaty, Russia gave up lands to Germany
    • With the new revolutionary government, Russia was kept out of the peace treaty
allies win the war cont
Allies win the War (cont.)
  • March, 1918- Germany tries one last push against France, but were to weak to complete the attack on France.
  • France, with the new supply of American troops, was able to counterattack Germany.
  • Germany was now facing shortages, soldiers revolting, and a revolutionary movement, which eventually forced the Kaiser to step down.
  • Germany and France signed an armistice and WWI ended on 11/11/1918 at 11 am.
  • Now the question remained, how to bring peace to Europe and prevent another war, like this, from happening again.
allies meet at versailles
Allies Meet at Versailles
  • The Big Four: Wilson (US), Clemenceau (France), Lloyd George (UK), and Orlando (Italy) meet to discuss peace in France (@Palace of Versailles). (Germany and Russia were excluded from attending.)
  • Wilson had a plan for peace called the 14 Points
    • 1. End of secret treaties 2.Freedom of the seas
    • 3. Free trade 4. Reduced armies and navies
    • 5. Colonial rights (for colonies)
    • 6.-13.New borders (new nations)
    • 14. Idea for the League of Nations
league of nations
League of Nations
  • Wilson hoped that this would be a “general association of nations” that would work together to keep peace in Europe, and peacefully negotiate solutions to global conflicts.
  • Treaty of Versailles created the League of Nations, but ironically the US did not join, because Congress (in US) would not agree to it, they thought it would strip the US of its own self-determination and independence.
a harsh peace
A Harsh Peace
  • Britain and France disagreed with Wilson’s ideas for peace.
  • They were both more worried with punishing Germany, and protecting themselves from a future German attack.
  • Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28, 1919 (five years to the day after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand)
a harsh peace cont
A Harsh Peace (cont.)
  • The Treaty:
    • Germany lost territory in Europe, Africa and Asia (to new nations and to the Allies/France)
    • Germany had severe restrictions placed on its military operations. (limited size of army and navy, no air force, and no purchasing weapons.)
    • Article 231 (of the Treaty) aka “War Guilt” clause- placed sole responsibility for the war on Germany’s shoulders.
    • Finally, Germany forced to pay $33 billion in war reparations to the Allies, over 30 years.
      • This completely destroyed Germany’s economy and helped lead them into a Great Depression.
the legacy of the wwi
The Legacy of the WWI
  • Germany was bitter, since it was blamed for the entire war, and had to pay reparations.
  • Colonialism continued, despite discussion of giving colonies some independence or self-determination.
  • League of Nations (which US did not join) was powerless to take any actions to prevent war.
  • 10+ million dead, 30 million in casualties (wounded and dead)
legacy cont
Legacy (cont.)
  • Entire generation of Europeans wiped out. (16-28 year olds)
  • Economic cost for the Great War = $338 billion.
  • Economic depression that followed, allowed fascist regimes to take over some countries.