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End of WWI: Making Peace

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End of WWI: Making Peace. War is Over!. Different sides had to come together to discuss peace agreements Each side wanted different things Different sides met at Versailles, in France. Palace of Versailles. Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points.

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Presentation Transcript
war is over
War is Over!
  • Different sides had to come together to discuss peace agreements
  • Each side wanted different things
  • Different sides met at Versailles, in France
woodrow wilson s fourteen points
Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points
  • Wilson had developed a fourteen point plan for world peace
  • Wilson delivered his “Fourteen Points” speech before Congress on January 18, 1918 outlining his plan for peace
  • 5 points discussed ways to prevent another war, 8 points dealt with boundary lines, and the last point called for the creation of the League of Nations
major points for a lasting peace
Major Points for a Lasting Peace
  • Wilson had five main points for avoiding a future war:
    • There should be no secret treaties between nations
    • Freedom of the seas should be maintained for all
    • Tariffs should be abolished or lowered to encourage free trade
    • Weapons should be reduced to the lowest amount possible
    • Colonial policies should consider the interests of the colonized people
  • Fourteenth point – “League of Nations” should be set up as a place where nations could talk about problems in order to avoid war
allies reaction
Allies Reaction
  • France and England were very angry, wanted to “make Germany pay”
    • French premier, Georges Clemenceau wanted to prevent future invasions of France
    • British Prime Minister David Lloyd George wanted to keep France and Germany balanced so that neither became too strong
  • United States, France, England, and Italy attended the peace conference
    • None of the defeated powers were invited
    • Russia, which had become communist was not invited either
treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles
  • Several new nations established by the treaty
    • Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia – taken from Russia and Germany
    • Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq, Jordan and Syria set up in the Middle East – controlled by Britain
  • Germany
    • Not allowed to have a large military
    • Had to return Alsace-Lorraine to France
    • Had to pay reparations (war damages) to the Allies
weaknesses of the treaty
Weaknesses of the Treaty
  • Harshness on Germany
    • War-guilt clause made Germany take all the blame
    • Germany wasn’t able to pay huge financial war reparations
    • Germany lost all of its colonies, which could have helped pay the war reparations
  • Russia
    • Not included in the peace conference even though it had fought on the side of the Allies
    • Lost more territory than Germany did
    • Not happy at all
  • Colonized people weren’t given independence
opposition to the treaty
Opposition to the Treaty
  • Some believed treaty was too harsh
  • Some didn’t like it because it simply exchanged one set of colonial rulers for another
  • Some ethnic groups did not like the new national boundaries that were created
debate over the league of nations
Debate Over the League of Nations
  • People in the U.S. feared that the League of Nations would threaten U.S. sovereignty
  • People thought that Congress wouldn’t have the right to declare war anymore; thought they would have to go through the League
  • Wilson refused to compromise and make amendments to the treaty so it was never ratified
    • Eventually U.S. signed a different treaty with Germany in 1921
the legacy of the war
The Legacy of the War
  • Strengthened U.S. military and government power
  • Europe
    • Many countries had political and social problems
    • Communism was established in Russia, and Russia was determined to regain its lost territory
    • Fascism will come to power in Spain, Italy, and soon Germany
    • Many Europeans wanted to continue fighting
      • Some felt there were unresolved issues
      • Germany, in particular, wasn’t happy with arrangements
      • Neither was a young Austrian corporal by the name of Adolf Hitler