ORGANELLES of the Cell - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ORGANELLES of the Cell

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  1. ORGANELLES of the Cell

  2. Nucleus • Appearance: Large Oval • Location: varies (usually central area of cell) • Function:Control center for all cell functions • Eukaryotes have them; prokaryotes do not • Contains all genetic information (DNA), deoxyribonucleic acid.

  3. Nucleolus • Appearance: Round structure inside the nucleus • Location: Inside the nucleus • Function: • Site of RNA synthesis • Produces ribosomes

  4. …(nucleus)…NUCLEAR ENVELOPE • Nucleic membrane that is semi-permeable • Allows proteins and RNA (ribonucleic acid) to enter or leave the nucleus …(nucleus)…NUCLEOLUS • Small dark “spot” that contains condensed DNA and RNA used to make ribosomes

  5. Cytoplasm • Appearance: Clear fluid • Location: Inside the cell membrane • Function:Suspends organelles; site of chemical reactions

  6. Plasma (cell) Membrane • Appearance: surrounds cell • Location: • Plant: inside the cell wall • Animal: outer layer • Semipermeable (only allows certain materials into and out of the cell) • Composed of lipids & proteins • Function:Controls materials in and out of the cell

  7. Rough ER Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) • Appearance: folded ribbon • Location: Connected to the nucleus and plasma membrane • Types: Smooth and Rough (ribosomes) • Function: • Rough: acts like a conveyer belt and transports proteins • Smooth: produces lipids

  8. <> Ribosomes • Appearance: Small “dots” • Location: Free in the cytoplasm OR attached to the ER • Are MADE in the nucleolus • Function:Where proteins are made (site of protein synthesis)

  9. Golgi Apparatus/Bodies • Appearance: Flattened sacs (stack of pancakes) • Location: Near the ER • Function:Temporary storage, secretion and packaging of proteins and fats • Produces lysosomes • DISTRIBUTION CENTER

  10. Mitochondria • Appearance: usually bean shaped with folded membranes • Location: scattered; more than one mitochondria can be in a cell! • Function:Powerhouse of the cell (energy production ATP)

  11. …Mitochondria… • 1. Energy from glucose is used to make ATP or adenosine triphosphate • 2. Cells use the ATP molecule for energy • 3. More active cells like muscle cells have more mitochondria • 4. Outer membrane is smooth, while inner membrane has long folds called cristae • 5. Have their own DNA to make more mitochondria when needed…self-replicating (can copy themselves)

  12. Vacuoles • Appearance: Cavities filled with fluid • Location: • Plant: usually 1 large water-filled central vacuole(maintains structure) • Animal: tiny vacuoles • Function:Storage of water, starch, fats, etc

  13. Water Vacuole

  14. Lysosomes • Appearance: Egg shaped-membrane bound structure • Produced by the Golgi Bodies • Formed from the ends of Golgi that pinch off • Location: ONLY found in animal cells • Function:Contain digestive enzymes that Breaks down worn out organelles, debris, and large ingested particles; “trash man” • Aid in the digestion of nutrients • Break down destructive cells (bacteria)

  15. Cytoskeleton • Appearance: Network of thin, fibrous elements • Location: Entire cell • Function:Acts as sort of a scaffold to provide support for organelles • Helps maintain cell shape

  16. Microfilaments • Appearance: Long, threadlike • Location: varies; (will see in cytoplasm) • Function:Made of proteins called actin • Associated with muscle contractions in large organisms • Associated with cell movement

  17. Microtubules • Appearance: Thin, hollow cylinders; “straws” • Made of proteins • Location: apart of cytoskeleton • Function:Provide shape and rigidity to the cell • Assist organelles to move from place to place within the cell

  18. Cilia • Appearance: thin hair-like projections • Location:Formed from specialized microtubules • Attached to outside of cell • Function:Aid in movement and locomotion (intestinal cells)

  19. Flagella • Appearance:Whip-like tails • Location: Formed from specialized microtubules • Attached to outside of cell • Function: Aid in movement and locomotion (sperm)

  20. Chromatin • Appearance: Strings of “spaghetti” • Location: inside nucleus • Function:Uncoiled DNA; involved in duplicating the cells • Coils into chromosomes during cell division

  21. Chromosomes • Appearance: Coiled chromatin • Location: inside nucleus • Function:Contains genetic information (DNA)

  22. Centrioles • Appearance: Two small structures • Location: Found inside the centrosome (only in animal cells) • Function:Moves chromosomes during cell division

  23. Plastids (only in plant cells) • Appearance: varies • Have own DNA • Location: ONLY in plants • Function:based on type: leucoplast, chromoplast, chlorplast

  24. Chloroplast (only in plant cells) • Appearance: Small, circular, green (contains chlorophyll-green pigment • Is double membraned and contains own DNA • Location: ONLY in plants • Function:Site of photosynthesis

  25. Cell Wall (only in plant cells) • Appearance: • Made of cellulose • Rigid, strong, stiff structure • Location:Surrounds cell membrane (only in plants) • Function: Support & protection • Allows H2O, O2, CO2 to pass into and out of cell

  26. Golgi Body Microfilaments Smooth ER Ribosomes Nucleolus *Centrioles *Lysosome Mitochondria Chromatin Microtubule Nucleus Plasma Membrane Rough ER Vacuole *(many small ones) *Animal Cell

  27. Microtubule *Plastid Ribosomes Microfilaments *Water Vacuole Nucleolus Plasma Membrane Mitochondria Chromatin Golgi Body Smooth ER Nucleus *Chloroplast *Cell Wall Rough ER *Plant Cell