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Chapter 14 The Renaissance and Reformation

Chapter 14 The Renaissance and Reformation

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Chapter 14 The Renaissance and Reformation

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  1. Chapter 14 The Renaissance and Reformation Europe’s cultural rebirth, known as the Renaissance, began in Italy around 1300 and spread to northern Europe. This period emphasized artistic expression, the study of Greek and roman cultures, secular and individual development

  2. The Medici family of Florence organized a successful banking business and were ranked among the richest merchants and bankers in Europe. Lorenzo “the magnificent” Medici was one of the leading Patrons—financial supporters of the arts.

  3. At the heart of the Renaissance was a set of ideas known as HUMANISM—an intellectual movement based on the study of classical culture, and focused on worldly subjects rather than on the religious issues Scholars focused on here and now vs. Medieval Scholars who focused on afterlife

  4. HUMANITIES • Grammar • Rhetoric • Poetry • History

  5. I A New Worldview A. Humanists (humanities) B. Perspective-to create illusion of depth -distant obj smaller 1. Tempera 2. Oil

  6. II Three geniuses of Renaissance art A. Leonardo da Vinci 1. Painter 2. Sculptor 3. Architect 4. Engineer 5. Scientist Mona Lisa The Last Supper

  7. B Michelangelo 1. Sculptor 2. Engineer 3. Painter 4. Architect 5. Poet Pieta –sorrow of Mary as she cradles Christ on her knees Statue of David Sistine Chapel in Rome Dome of St. Peters Cathedral..model for US Capital in D.C.

  8. C. Raphael • Madonna, mother of Jesus • The School of Athens • Imaginary gathering of Plato, Aristotle, Socrates • Used pic of Michelangelo, Leonardo, and himself in works

  9. Niccolo Machiavelli • The Prince • Published 1513 • Advice to rulers how to gain and maintain power • Says end justifies means • It’s ok to not keep promises if it gets results • “Machiavellian” refers to deceit in politics • Others say he is a realist on how politics is

  10. Renaissance Moves North • Dutch Priest Erasmus- spreads it north • Made new Greek edition of New Testament • & vernacular bible( everyday language) • Engraving- etched design on metal with acid • Metal then used to make prints • Northern Humanist – believed learning should bring religious and moral reforms • Thomas More – wrote Utopia (ideal society)

  11. William Shakespeare -English • Richard III –power struggles of Engl. Kings • Romeo & Juliet • Created 1700 new words • Bedroom, lonely, groups, gloomy, hurry, sneak

  12. Miguel de Cervantes -Spain • Don Quixote (Dahn kee hoh tay) • Mocks romantic medieval chivalry • Printing Revolution Johann Gutenberg –Germany • 1st complete edition of bible using printing press and ink • Printed books were cheaper and easier to produce than hand-copied • More people learn to read

  13. Protestant Reformation • Church caught up in worldly affairs • Pope competed for political power • Kept a lavish lifestyle • Paid artist to beautify church that cost $ • To pay for it: increased fee for baptisms and marriages • Some sold “indulgence” –less time in purgatory for money

  14. Martin Luther • German monk and professor of theology led riot • 95 Theses • Arguments against indulgences • Indulgence had no bible basis • Pope had not authority to release souls early • Christians only saved by faith • Printed and distributed across Europe

  15. Luther cont. • Church ask Luther to recant (give up his views and write apology) • Instead he urged Christian to reject Rome authority • 1521 excommunicated • Holy Roman emperor Charles V ordered Luther to recant • Made him outlaw –illegal to give food or shelter

  16. Luther Teachings (Lutheran Church • 1st rejected deeds necessary for salvation • Bible sole source for truth • Denied authority of pope or church priest • Rejected 5 of 7 sacraments b/c bible never mentioned them. • Banned indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, prayers to saints • Emphasized the sermon • Permitted clergy to marry

  17. Lutheran name change-Protestant • Wide support • Answer to church corruption • Way to overthrow rule of church and Holy Roman emperor • National loyalty – tired of German money going to Italy • Peasant Revolt- he denounced it, he liked social order. Killed thousands left more homeless.

  18. John Calvin French Priest & Lawyer • Book on how to run Protestant Church • A lot like Luther but… • Predestination – God long ago decided who would receive salvation • Calvinist believed 2 type of people • Saints & Sinners • Only those who were saved could live truly Christian lives

  19. Calvin’s Geneva • City in Switzerland Calvin led • Set of Theocracy • Govt run by church leaders • Hard work, discipline, thrift, honesty morality • Fines /punishment for dancing, fighting, swearing, • Like Luther believed in religious edu. For women, but should read bible in private.

  20. Spread of Calvinism • Reformers all over Europe visit Geneva • As Calvinism spread sets off wars across Europe over religion • Germany – faced Catholics & Lutherans • France- (called Huguenots) vs Catholics • Scotland –John Knox led rebellion • Protestants overthrew Catholic queen • Set up Scottish Presbyterian Church

  21. Radical Reformers • Anabaptist – no to infant baptism • Some wanted speed up coming of God by violent means • Took over city of Munster in Germany • Luther helped Catholics in regaining order • Most were peaceful, called for separation of church and state. • What are they today? • Baptist, Quakers, Mennonites, Amish

  22. English Reformation • King Henry VIII • Awarded title “Defender of the Faith” by pope • Break with Catholic church • Wanted control over English Church • Wanted Annulment from Catherine of Aragon to marry Anne Boleyn to have a son. • Pope said no so not to offend Holly Roman Emperor Charles V (Catherine's nephew)

  23. Break with Rome • Passed laws to take over Church of England. • Act of Supremacy – head of Eng. Church • Catholics refused to accept. Executed for Treason • Sir Thomas Moore, English humanist executed later Canonized (made a saint by cath church) • Closed convents and Monastery- seized land and wealth • Started Anglican Church (new church of England)

  24. Henry VIII Dies • Edward VI (10 yrs old) king • Changes Eng. to protestant • Dies in teens • Mary Tudor (half sister) • “Bloody Mary” nickname • Returns Engl. to Catholic and burns protestants at the stake

  25. Queen Elizabeth I • Slowly enforce reforms called • Elizabethan settlement • Church of Engl. Keeps Catholic ceremony and ritual, bishops and archbishops BUT Monarch was head of Anglican Church • Accepted moderate protestant doctrine • English replaces Latin in services • This helped Eng. Escape religious wars that tore apart France and other European states during 1500s

  26. Catholic Reformation – Pope Paul III • Council of Trent – met off and on for 20 yrs • Reaffirmed salvation comes through faith and good works • Declared Bible major source of religious truth but not only source • Penalties for corrupt clergy • Established schools for clergy

  27. Catholic Reformation cont. • Stronger Inquisition (Church court from middle ages) • Used secret testimony, torture, execution to get rid of heresy • Index of Forbidden Books – list no Catholic could read

  28. Ignatius of Loyola • new religious order (Society of Jesus or Jesuits) • Was a Spanish Knight that led crusades • Setup schools to teach humanist and Catholic beliefs, enforce discipline, obedience to church

  29. Catholic Reformation Work? • Rome far more devout • Europe piety and charity flourished • Slowed down Protestant growth • But Europe still was divided

  30. Widespread Persecution • Witch Hunts – usually women, thousands died • Beggars, poor widows, midwives blamed for infant deaths, herbalist {potions from devil} • Scapegoats (someone to blame)

  31. Jews Persecuted • Venice, Italy ordered to live in separate quarter of city known as “Ghetto” • Luther- tried to convert Jews but ended up expelling them from Christian lands, burned synagogues and books • Emperor Charles V- who supported toleration of Jews, banned from Spanish colonies in Americas

  32. Scientific Revolution • Humanist read ancient classics • Religious reformers inspired by Bible and early Christian times • Science pointed ahead to future

  33. Revolutionary Theory • Nicholas Copernicus • Heliocentric Theory – sun centered universe • Went against church teachings from Ptolemy • Galileo Galilee • Made telescope • Attacked by scholars b/c contradict ancient beliefs • Church condemned him. At Inquisition agreed to state publicly that Earth stood motionless at center of universe.

  34. Scientific Method • Based on observation and experimentation • Hypothesis (possible explanation) • Complex math calculations used • Repeated work at least once to confirm

  35. Isaac Newton • Theory of Gravity – explains planet rotation • Law of motion and mechanics • Developed Calculus

  36. Other Scientific Advances • Chemistry –freed from magical notions of medieval alchemists • Robert Boyle –diff btw elements and compounds • Started modern Chemical analysis of matter • Medicine –Ambroise Pare developed ointment and stitches • William Harbey- describes blood circulation by heart