The Renaissance and reformation 1400-1600
The renaissance • “Rebirth” of interest in knowledge and social culture. • Middle Ages – relatively slow in development – Renaissance is rapid • What caused it? • 1. Weakening power of Church – people disenchanted with corruption, faith weakened by Plague • 2. Increasing power of monarchies (sponsors of art & science) • 3. Global interaction • 4. Humanist movement and emphasis on individual achievement • 5. Increased trade/economic activity and push towards urbanization.
Italy • Cradle of the Renaissance. Why???? • 1. Broken into city-states; very competitive against each other • 2. Very wealthy due to location – controlled Mediterranean trade • 3. Financial center of Europe • 4. Home to powerful families (Sforza, de’Medici, Borgia) that set an example for modern rule and lavished patronage on arts and sciences • 5. Close ties to Church in their favor – got away with “more” than northern nations
Florence • Central Italy • Center of arts development - All major artists centered out of Florence • Ruled by de Medici family • Influential in politics and Church (2 popes) • Said to have started ‘mafia’ • Arguably most powerful city state in Italy
The PAPAL STATE • Revitalized by Borgia family (actually Spanish) • Popes very powerful politically, but losing faith of Catholics • Restored Rome as the major city in Italy • Controlled vast amounts of farmland
VENICE • Republic state – democratically elected Doge (leader) • Major water power, controlled most of eastern Mediterranean trade • True political power in hands of merchant elite • Decadent social culture – always on outs with Church
Humanism • Petrarch • Idea that all creations of man are valuable. • Revival of classics, history, philosophy and literature. • Society would be improved with education. • Prompted public education mandates. • Renewed interest in arts.
Christian humanism developed in Northern Europe in the late 15th century. People could improve themselves through studying the Bible. This improvement would lead to the general improvement of society. The Church disagreed - The Church did not encourage exploration of any topic that would question or prove Church dogma incorrect. Self-study of the Bible was dangerous: people could “incorrectly” interpret the Bible. Humanism and Christianity
Nicollo Machiavelli & Government • “The Prince”, 1531 • How to acquire and keep political power. • A prince should be willing to set aside what is morally right in order to do what is politically right for a country. • Tyranny is justifiable to protect the interests of the nation.
Renaissance Societal Shifts • Nobles – de-emphasize piety; emphasize courtly behavior and education • Baldassare Castiglione “The Book of the Courtier”, 1528 • Marriages occurring later in life - fewer children. • More like contracts: arranged, dowry • Families were patriarchal: man was head of house. • All children under control of the father until legally emancipated. • Birth order very important - Primogeniture • Education responsibility of parents. Female children were not educated beyond basic reading and writing unless permitted by the father.
The End of Feudalism • ation of monarchies • End of small kingdoms; modern monarchies emerging • Massive decrease in population. • Plague, wars, • Migration to the cities/towns • 40% of population living in cities/towns • Serfdom still exists – but much freer with more rights
The Printing Press Johannes Gutenberg Adapted moveable type – used earlier by Chinese 1455, The Bible Makes books more accessible and affordable – printed in local (vernacular) language for wider accessibility Literary Revolution
The Weakening Catholic Church • The public started to question the authority of the Church • Corruption • Politically/militarily motivated Popes • Private use of church funds • Lack of Morality of the Clergy • The selling of indulgences • Loss of faith during the Black Death
Martin Luther • Monk and Theology Professor, University of Whittenburg • Disagreed with administration of Church • Justification: Believed that a person earned salvation through faith, not through action. • Bible was the only source of religious truth.
LUTHERANISM – THE MODEL FOR PROTESTANTISM • Small congregations led by church elected pastors – no central authority • Pastors could marry • No clerical hierarchy • Only used Bible for religious instruction • Sermons/teachings instead of mass – conducted in local language, not Latin • Many Catholic institutions eliminated – no saints, no veneration of Mary, no rosaries, communion limited, no Confession, etc. • Self-study encouraged and expected • Plain, less ornate churches • No icons – why you don’t see Crucifixes and statues in most Protestant churches
The Ninety-five Theses • October 31, 1517 – Luther sent a list of ninety-five theses attacking the sales of indulgences to his church superiors. • He asked those superiors to publicly debate him. • He was ignored.
By 1520, Luther wants a break with the church. Asks German princes overthrow Catholicism and establish a German church. He angers Charles V (Spain)of the Holy Roman Empire, who orders Luther to Worms where he is questioned by the Imperial Diet (legislature). Diet is unable to get Luther to recant. He is declared outlaw, excommunicated - goes into hiding Luther’s Reformation
The German princes use the Exile of Luther as an excuse to go to war with the Holy Roman Empire, which they belonged to. Despite Charles’ ruling, Germany began establishing a German Church. Charles and the German Princes go to war over this. Protestants defeat Charles’ army Peace of Augsburg - German Princes have the right to decide their official state religion. Religious War Breaks Out
Initially, Henry VIII hates Luther and persecutes Protestants in England. Act of Separation – 1534 Henry VIII declares the Church of England separate from Rome because he could not get the Pope to agree to a divorce from his 1stwifeHeadof Church is the King Any who would not agree were executed as traitors Executes Sir Thomas More, closest advisor and teacher Seized property of Catholic church Church of England is actually carbon copy of Catholicism, until reign of Elizabeth I. Then takes on more protestant qualities…still closest protestant faith to Catholicism. The Church of England
The Wives of Henry VIII Princess Catherine of Aragon Lady Jane Seymour Lady Anne Boleyn Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Katharine Parre
Ulrich Zwingli Relics and images abolished, church ornaments removed Mass changed to scripture reading, prayer and sermons Opposed to communion John Calvin Predestination – God has already chose who is going to Heaven and Hell – determines behavior Jacob Amman Opposed to state role in Church Baptism a requirement – baptism is free choice, not automatic Other Major Reformers
The Counter Reformation • The Council of Trent • March 1545 • Re-vitalized Catholic identity • Uphold traditional beliefs • Maintained clerical celibacy • Outlawed the selling of indulgences
The Society of Jesus • Founded 1540, Ignatius Loyola to protect the Church • Jesuits • Absolute obedience to pope. • Established missions • Aided in revitalization of Catholicism • Teachers