The Renaissance and Reformation Mrs. Hart, Mrs. Costello, Mrs. Suto, and Ms. Soddano
The Renaissance The time period in Europe from the 1300s to the 1600s was known as the Renaissance. It was a golden age for Europe, a period of rebirth after the “Dark Ages”.
Roots of the Renaissance The Renaissance began northern Italy where the city-states were thriving centers of trade. Merchants had great wealth and were willing to spend it on the arts and education.
Humanism A new way of thinking developed called humanism. It emphasized the achievements of the individual and looked at worldly issues instead of religious ones.
Renaissance Art The Renaissance produced some of the greatest paintings, sculptures, and architecture in the history of the world. They returned to the Greek and Roman styles of columns, arches, and domes. The art of the Renaissance differed from that of the Middle Ages because in addition to religious subjects, artists also realistically portrayed other important figures of the time.
Renaissance Art Renaissance artists learned the rules of perspective, the technique used to give art a 3-D effect. They studied human anatomy and worked from live models, so they could portray the body with accurate details.
Renaissance Artists Michelangelo: sculptor, engineer, painter and poet. He is best known for his mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican in Rome. He also sculpted the Pieta, the Virgin Mary holding Jesus Christ after his death.
Renaissance Artists Leonardo da Vinci: a multi-talented man, whose most famous painting was the MonaLisa. He was also an inventor, engineer, botanist, musician, mathematician, and writer. He made sketches of flying machines and underwater boats long before they were invented.
Renaissance Artists Raphael: an architect and artist One of his most famous paintings was Little Angels.
Northern European Artists The Renaissance did not start in northern Europe until a hundred years after it started in Italy. Some famous artists include Albrecht Durer, Jan and Hubert Van Eyck, and Pieter Brugel.
Renaissance Writers In the late Middle Ages, people began to write in the everyday language of ordinary people. The humanist ideas of Renaissance authors spread more quickly as a result. Writers of this period included Dante, Cervantes, Shakespeare, and Machiavelli.
The Printing Press Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press in the mid-1400s. Effects of this invention included: * Books became cheaper and easier to make. * More people learned to read and write because books were more readily available. * People had access to new knowledge. * Printed bibles increased the spread of religious ideas.
Reformation The Reformation was a religious movement in Europe that brought about great changes for both the Catholic Church and people’s every-day lives.
Causes of the Reformation 1. Humanism led people to question Church authority and to use human reason. 2. Strong monarchs were emerging, who at times increased their power by supporting reformers against the Church. 3. People began to object to the power of Church leaders. They also did not like some Church practices including fees for marriages and baptisms, and selling of indulgences.
Martin Luther Martin Luther wanted to reform or change thd Catholic Church because he was disgusted over the sale of indulgences. He posted his 95 Theses on the door of a church in Wittenberg Germany.
John Calvin Founded the Presbyterian Church in France. He believed that Christians could only reach heaven through prayer and faith. He promoted the idea of predestination, or the belief that God had determined before the beginning of time who would be saved.
King Henry VIII Henry VIII broke from the Catholic Church for political reasons. He wanted a divorce because he wanted to remarry and try to have a son. The Catholic Church would not grant him one, so he took over the English Church. He ordered convents and monasteries closed, and seized the wealth and land of the Catholic Church in England. The new Church was called the Anglican Church.
Catholic Counter-Reformation As the Protestant Reformation continued to spread, more and more people were leaving the Catholic Church. To keep Catholics from converting, the Catholic Church started the Counter-Reformation. This movement looked to reform the Catholic faith, and strengthen the Church through moral discipline, prayer,and meditation.
Effects of the Reformation • Loss of religious unity. • Religious conflicts that led to wars. • Accusations of witchcraft increased as peoples’ religious fervor increased. • Anti-Semitism or persecution of the Jews increased.