The Renaissance and Reformation. What is the Renaissance?. Renaissance means REBIRTH…. Of learning, knowledge, and arts. Essential Questions. What were the causes of the Renaissance? How did Renaissance ideas spread northward and influence Northern culture and society?
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What is the Renaissance? • Renaissance means REBIRTH…. • Of learning, knowledge, and arts
Essential Questions • What were the causes of the Renaissance? • How did Renaissance ideas spread northward and influence Northern culture and society? • What were the causes and effects of the Protestant Reformation? • How did the Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation affect the Catholic Church?
I. The Beginning of the Renaissance • Society had changed. • Why? • Black Death=Less People • Less people=Food Surplus • Food Surplus=More Money • The Rise of City-States • Italy was divided into large city-states in the North • Large papal states and kingdoms in the South
Italian City-States Venice = sea trade Milan = agriculture, silk, weapons Florence = bankers • The Renaissance started in Italy • Why? • Cultural diffusion from the Crusades • Location
Renaissance Ideas • I. Humanism • Believed individuals and accomplishments were important • Humans were important, not religion • Human mind was limitless • Wrote in vernacular • Vernacular: Everyday speech
II. Secular Writers/Beliefs • 1500s Italy was at war, life was not secure • People began to leave the Catholic Church • Thought the church had failed them • Secular means worldly, not of the church • “Renaissance Man” • Smart, worldly, artistic, speak Latin and Greek • The Courtier by Castiglione, described this man
The Prince • Written by Machiavelli, a political philosopher • Believed rulers must do what is necessary to keep control • “The ends justify the means”
III. Science of the Renaissance • Most people focused on history, geography, politics • Science begins to emerge • Problem: It challenged the Catholic Church • Church taught geocentricism • Earth=center of the universe • Scientists taught heliocentricism • Sun=center of the universe • Copernicus and Galileo, scientists' who fought against the Catholic Church • Both arrested by the Church
IV. Renaissance Art • Patrons • Someone who pays for art • Middle Ages: Art was created by anonymous artists • Renaissance: artists worked for whoever paid the most money
The Medici Family • Florence, Italy • Very wealthy merchants • Patrons of the Arts • Gave $ to artists, intellectuals, musicians • Lorenzo de Medici largest patron
Styles/Techniques • Painted natural world, realistic • Studied Perspective • 3D • Very different from medieval art • How? • Painted some religious scenes, also sculpted ancient Greek forms • Shows interest in Classics • Architecture used columns, arches…sound similar?
Leonardo da Vinci • Painter, writer, engineer, architect, mathematician, musician and philosopher • Works: The Last Supper, The Mona Lisa Flying machines, canals, designed 1st machine gun
Michelangelo • Sculptors studied anatomy • Why? Realism • Won fame with Pieta • Sculpture of Mary and Jesus • Works: David, ceiling of the Sistine Chapel • Sistine Chapel Tour
Donatello • Sculptor • Work: David
Raphael • Painter and Architect • Most famous work is The School of Athens • A fresco, paint on wet plaster
Bramante • Renaissance architect • Work: St. Peter’s Basilica
I. Trading Goods and Ideas • Trade networks across Europe grew • Trade was controlled by the Hanseatic League • Merchant organization • Operated to protect its members • Renaissance ideas spread through trade from Italy
Revolution! • Johannes Gutenberg • Developed the moveable type printing press • Texts were now cheaper • Cheaper books Ownership increases Increase in literacy Renaissance ideas spread Gutenberg Bible • 1st book to be printed
Philosophers and Writers • Erasmus • Priest • Christian Humanism • Simple life, education of children • Condemned by the Catholic Church
Sir Thomas More • Best known for Utopia • Meant for a humanist audience • Criticized government, wanted perfect society based on reason and logic
William Shakespeare • Greatest English Playwright • Spread Renaissance ideas to the masses • Plays were a shift from religious morals of the Middle Ages • Wrote in the vernacular • Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, Hamlet
Christine de Pisan • Focused on the role of women • Wrote biographies of royals • Wrote guides for women on morality • Champion of education and equality for women
Northern Renaissance Artists • Influenced by Italian artists • Very realistic painters • Italians = beauty of ancient Rome and Greece • Northern = depicted realism of people and nature • Albrecht Durer • Painted oils • Jan van Eyck • Landscapes and domestic life Northern artists used religious symbolism
I. Problems with the Church • Wealth of the church grew, money = corruption • Respect for the church began to drop • Church taxed citizens to pay for projects • Indulgences: • The Pope need money • Solution: Sell indulgences • Pardon that reduces time spent in purgatory • “Selling salvation”
II. Reformers • John Wycliffe: 1330s, church should give up possessions • Jan Hus: 1370s, preached against immorality of the Church • 1412, excommunicated by the Pope, later burned at the stake
Martin Luther • 1517 The Year the Protestant Reformation began! • Luther made complaints about the Church • Called the 95 Theses • Thesis: Argument • Written in Latin, directed towards church leaders • Mailed complaints to the church door • Said Indulgences were sinful
Luther’s Platforms • God’s grace cannot be won through works alone • Needed faith for salvation • Head of the church is Jesus Christ, NOT the Pope • Insisted on people interpreting the scriptures for themselves • Translated Bible into German • Why? So common people can read it.
Reactions to Luther • 1520, Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther • Excommunicated: no longer part of the church • 1521, summoned to appear before the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms • HRE said Luther was an outlaw and condemned his work • 1529, HRE Charles V tried to suppress Luther’s writing • His followers “protested” = Protestants
The Spread of Protestantism • Lutheranism = Germany • Switzerland = Ulrich Zwingli • Theocracy • Criticized by Luther • Followers often attacked by Catholics • Dies in battle 1531 • Geneva, Switzerland = John Calvin • Preached predestination • God knows who will be saved • Church attendance was mandatory • Very strict
Scotland = John Knox • Roots of Presbyterianism • Presbytery • Governed by clergy and the members • Another group develops: The Anabaptists • Baptized adults • Crime at the time since you were baptized as an infant • Why? Original Sin
Protestantism in England • Henry VIII • Became King of England in 1509, age 17 • Devout Catholic, denounced Luther • By 1525, wife had only one child (Mary) • Needed a male heir, but his wife, Catherine of Aragone was older • Asked the Pope to annul the marriage • Problem: • HRE Charles V was Catherine’s nephew • Pope said no
Henry VIII and his solution • Reformation Parliament • Henry VII summoned Parliament said England was no longer under the rule of the Catholic Church • Started his own church, The Anglican Church • VERY SIMILAR to Catholicism • In American, known as the Episcopal Church
Henry VIII and his wives • Total 6 wives, 3 children • Catherine of Aragon Mary Divorced • Anne Boleyn Elizabeth Beheaded • Jane Seymour Edward VI Died • Ann of Cleves No children Divorced • Catherine Howard No children Beheaded • Katherine Parr No children Survived