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Social Development during Adolescence. Chapter 4. Social Development and Rites of Passage. Formal Rites of Passage Religious (Bar/Bat Mitzvah; Confirmation; Walk-About) Academic (Transition in Schooling; Graduation) Informal Rites of Passage Drivers’ License Social Clubs What others?????

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social development and rites of passage
Social Development and Rites of Passage
  • Formal Rites of Passage
    • Religious (Bar/Bat Mitzvah; Confirmation; Walk-About)
    • Academic (Transition in Schooling; Graduation)
  • Informal Rites of Passage
    • Drivers’ License
    • Social Clubs
    • What others?????
  • What functions do rites of passage serve?
social roles
Social Roles
  • Contexts of Roles
    • Family Roles
    • Friendship Roles
    • School/Student Roles
    • Employee
  • Role Conflicts
    • Within Context
    • Across Contexts
personality development
Personality Development
  • Psychoanalytic Theories:
    • Largely driven by unconscious forces
    • Largely formed by childhood
    • Neuroscientific evidence suggests that some of our drives may be outside our conscious awareness
  • Problems with Psychoanalytic Theory
    • Explanations occur in hindsight
    • Traumatic events across the lifespan can bring about change in personality
personality development5
Personality Development
  • Trait Theory—The Big Five
    • Trait: Relatively stable over time with some variability
      • Openness to experience
      • Conscientiousness
      • Extraversion
      • Agreeableness
      • Neuroticism
    • Traits tend to be relatively stable across adolescence
personality development6
Personality Development
  • Trait Theory (cont’d)
    • South, Krueger, Johnson & Iacono (2008)
      • The contribution of genetic and environmental forces varied as a result of the adolescent’s personality and parent interaction;
      • The genetic-environment interaction is complex and varies according to multiple factors
  • Temperament:
    • Patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring (Feldman, 2008, 122)
      • Activity level
      • Irritability level
    • Strong genetic component
    • Frequently observable in neonates
    • Impact of temperament can be moderated by environmental forces (e.g. parental reactions, peers’ reactions)
moral development
Moral Development
  • Piaget—Understanding rules & intent
    • Heteronomous morality
      • Rigid rules with no necessary agreement on rules
      • Little or no focus on intent
    • Incipient cooperation:
      • Rigid rules, but shared understanding
      • Some focus on intent based on rules
    • Autonomous cooperation:
      • Rules exist
      • Rules can be changed by participants
      • Intent is considered
moral development9
Moral Development
  • Kohlberg’s Theory
    • Moral reasoning: Process of making a judgment, not the judgment itself is the object of study
    • Tied to cognitive development and experience
    • Assessment is based on moral dilemmas and the reasoning one uses to resolve them
    • Based on Levels and Stages of reasoning
moral development10
Moral Development
  • Kohlberg’s Theory
    • Level 1: Preconventional
      • Self-serving interests
      • Focus is on outcomes for the individual
        • Stage 1: Rules followed to avoid punishment; morality is based on decisions that will avoid negative outcomes
        • Stage 2: Transition from avoiding negative to seeking benefit or reward
moral development11
Moral Development
  • Kohlberg’s Theory
    • Level 2: Conventional
      • Moral decisions are based on societal rules and conventions for being accepted as good members of society
        • Stage 3: Moral decisions are made in order to manage others’ impressions and maintain their respect;
        • Stage 4: Moral decisions are made to comply with rule of law and societal rules
moral development12
Moral Development
  • Kohlberg’s Theory
    • Level 3: Postconventional
      • Moral reasoning at this level transcends specific societal or personal rationales and moves to a broader set of principles that transcend time and context
        • Stage 5: Reasoning here is based on a sense of what is right; rules and laws are seen as malleable based on social contracts
        • Stage 6: Decisions are based on universal principles that transcend time and context; Rules or Laws that violate these principles are not obeyed
moral development13
Moral Development
  • Gilligan’s Moral Development:
    • Kohlberg’s model was based on a masculine/male perspective of justice
    • Feminine approach would be based on relationships and care (the ethic of care)
    • Gender role may be more important than biological sex
moral development14
Moral Development
  • Gilligan’s Moral Development:
    • Stage 1: Self-Care from Need: Orientation toward individual survival
    • Stage 2: Other-Care from Need: Sacrifice self for others’ needs
    • Stage 3: Self-Other Care from Need: Recognize the value in working to balance costs and benefits for all concerned
  • Research has demonstrated that both Kohlberg’s ideas and Gilligan’s ideas work for both sexes
moral development15
Moral Development
  • Social Learning Models of Moral Development
    • Modeling moral behavior (e.g. observing a coach reinforcing winning at any cost; observing a teacher rewarding one of your friends for helping a special needs student)
    • Model Characteristics:
      • Well respected
      • Viewed as competent
      • Seen as similar to the observer
moral development16
Moral Development
  • Moral reasoning VS Moral Behavior
    • Evaluation of moral reasoning takes place out of context
    • Moral behavior is typically contextualized and brings emotional loading
    • Adolescents are vulnerable to peer pressure and influence hence the context can sway decisions to act even in the face of high levels of moral reasoning
    • Perceived negative outcomes (costs) can be see as being outweighed by positive outcomes (benefits)
    • Personal fable and imaginary audience