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Chapter 16 Adolescence: Social and Emotional Development. Development of Identity and the Self-Concept. “Who Am I?” (And Who Else?). What Does Erikson Have to Say About the Development of Identity During Adolescence?. Identity versus Identity diffusion Primary task: develop ego integrity

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Chapter 16Adolescence:Social and Emotional Development


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Development of Identity and the Self-Concept

“Who Am I?”

(And Who Else?)


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What Does Erikson Have to Say About the Development of Identity During Adolescence?

  • Identity versus Identity diffusion

    • Primary task: develop ego integrity

  • Psychological moratorium

    • Experimental period

  • Identity Crisis

    • Successful resolution is understanding who you are and what you stand for


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What Are Marcia’s “Identity Statuses”?

  • Four statues based on two dimensions

    • Exploration – active questioning alternatives in search of goals

    • Commitment – stable investment in goals

  • Identity diffusion

    • Low exploration and commitment

  • Foreclosure

    • Low exploration; high commitment

  • Moratorium

    • High exploration; low commitment

  • Identity achievement

    • High exploration and commitment


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Ethnicity and Development of Identity

  • Development of self-identity is more complex for ethnic minorities

    • Need to assimilate two sets of values – dominant and minority

    • Prejudice and discrimination

    • Scarcity of role models

  • Stages of ethnic identity development

    • Unexamined ethnic identity (foreclosed state)

    • Ethnic identity search (moratorium state)

    • Achieved ethnic identity


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Gender Roles and Development of Identity

  • Erikson concluded

    • Career matters were more important to men

    • Relationships were more important to women

  • As a result men developed identity before intimacy while women developed intimacy before identity

  • Research contradicts this and suggests men and women are equally concerned about career

    • Women continue to integrate family and career plans


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How Does Self-Concept Develop During Adolescence?

  • Self-descriptions

    • As children, focus on physical characteristics and actions

    • As adolescence, incorporate distinct and enduring personality traits

  • Self-descriptions become more differentiated

    • With formal-operational skills, able to integrate contradictory elements


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What Happens to Self-Esteem During Adolescence?

  • In early adolescence, self-esteem declines

    • Disparity between ideal and real self

  • From age 13, self-esteem gradually improves

    • May adjust ideas about ideal self

    • May become less self-critical

  • Emotional support from family and peers is important

    • Initially, family support more important

    • By late adolescence, peer support more important



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How Do Relationships With One’s Parents and Peers Change During the Course of the Teenage Years?

  • Relationship with parents

    • Time spent with family decreases during adolescence

      • Boys tend to spend more time alone

      • Girls tend to spend more time with friends

    • More time spent with mother

      • More conflicts but also more support

    • Remaining close to family

      • More self-reliant and independence, higher self-esteem and better school performance

    • Conflicts are more frequent

      • Based on issues of control


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How Do Relationships With One’s Parents and Peers Change During the Course of the Teenage Years?

  • Parenting Styles

    • Authoritative parenting

      • Teens show more competent behavior than other groups

      • More self-reliant, do better in school

      • Better mental health, lowest incidence of problems and misconduct


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How Do Relationships With One’s Parents and Peers Change During the Course of the Teenage Years?

  • Relationship with peers

    • Role of peers increases throughout adolescence

  • Friendships

    • More friends than younger children

    • One of two “best friends”

    • Based on acceptance, intimate self-disclosure and mutual understanding

    • Typically same age, race, and sex

  • Friendship contributes to

    • Positive self-concept and psychological adjustment


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Ethnicity, Sex and Adolescent Friendships During the Course of the Teenage Years?

  • Children choose friends from their ethnic group

    • European American female teens report support from friends

    • African American, male and female, both report support from friends

      • Ethnic stressors may push minority teens to seek support

  • Intimacy and closeness more central to girls’ friendships

    • Adolescent girls report friendships as more important than boys do

  • Girls’ friendship networks are smaller and more exclusive

    • Girls tend to participate in unstructured activities

    • Boys engage in organized group activities


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What Kind of Adolescent Peer Groups Are There? During the Course of the Teenage Years?

  • Cliques

    • 5 to 10 people who hang around together

    • Shared activities and confidences

  • Crowds

    • Larger groups who do not spend much time together

    • Defined by activity or attitude of group

  • Adolescent peer groups

    • Spend considerable time together

    • Function with little or no adult control

    • May include teens of other sex


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When Do Romantic Relationships Develop? During the Course of the Teenage Years?

  • Begin in early to middle adolescence

  • Sequence of dating

    • Putting oneself in situations with peers of other sex

    • Group activities that include peers of other sex

    • Group dating

    • Two-person dating

  • Dating in early adolescence

    • Casual and short-lived

  • Dating in later adolescence

    • More stable and committed


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How Much Influence Do Peers Have On Each Other? During the Course of the Teenage Years?

  • Peer pressure peaks during mid-adolescence

    • Peers provide standard for behaviors

    • Peers provide support

  • Adolescents are influenced by both parents and peers

    • Peer influence styles and taste

    • Parent influence moral principles and future goals


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What Are Some Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Adolescence? During the Course of the Teenage Years?

  • Masturbation

    • Most common sexual outlet for teens

    • Nearly universal among male teens, less among female teens

  • Sexual Orientation

    • Sexually attracted to, and interested in forming a relationship

      • with people of other sex – Heterosexual

      • with people of same sex – Homosexual

      • with people of either sex – Bisexual

    • One may engage in sexual activity outside of sexual orientation


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Homosexual Sexual Orientation During the Course of the Teenage Years?

  • Stages of sexual identity for gay and lesbians

    • Attraction to members of same sex

    • Self-labeling as gay or lesbian

    • Sexual contact with members of same sex

    • Disclosure of sexual orientation to others/coming out

  • Depression and suicide - higher among gay youth


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Why Do Some Teenagers Initiate Sexual Activity at During the Course of the Teenage Years?an Early Age, While Others Wait Until Later?

  • High school students

    • Since 90’s, gradual decline in %age engage in sexual intercourse

    • Males more likely than girls to be sexually active

  • Effects of puberty

    • Early onset puberty – earlier sexual activity

  • Parental influences

    • Close relationship with parents – less early sexual activity

  • Peer influences

    • Predictor of sexual activity

      • Sexual activity of best friend



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In This Cultural Setting, Why Do Teenage Girls Ever Having Had Sexual Intercourse Become Pregnant?

  • Receive little advice about sexuality

  • Failure to use contraception

  • Use pregnancy to achieve intimacy, demonstrate rebellion

  • Uneducated about reproduction and contraception

  • Half of pregnant teens will get an abortion

    • Most teen moms will be single moms


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Figure 16.2 Percentage of Sexually Active Students in Grades 9-12 Who Report Using a Condom the Last Time They Had Sexual Intercourse


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Figure 16.3 Trends in Pregnancy and Birthrates Among Women, Age 15-19, in the United States and Other Developed Nations


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What Are the Consequences of Teenage Pregnancy? Age 15-19, in the United States and Other Developed Nations

  • Consequences for pregnant teen

    • More likely to experience medical complications

    • Less likely to complete education

    • Lower salaries

  • Consequences for teen father

    • Lower grades in school than peers

    • Enter workforce at earlier age

  • Consequences for children of teen mom

    • Lower cognitive functions

    • More behavioral, emotional problems

    • More likely to become teen parent


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Preventing Teenage Pregnancy Age 15-19, in the United States and Other Developed Nations

  • Sex education programs

  • Successful programs

    • Increase knowledge about sexuality

    • Delay onset of sexual activity


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What Is Juvenile Delinquency? Age 15-19, in the United States and Other Developed Nations

  • Illegal activities committed by child or adolescent

    • Some activities are illegal only if committed by minors

      • Status offenses

  • Ethnicity

    • Factors for overrepresentation of African American youth in juvenile justice system

      • Racial bias

      • Economic factors


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What Are the Sex Differences in Delinquent Behavior? Age 15-19, in the United States and Other Developed Nations

  • Boys more likely to engage in delinquent behaviors

  • Boys commit more crimes of violence

    • Girls commit more status offenses

  • More girls are likely to be arrested for being runaways

    • More runaways

    • Double standard


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Who Is Most Likely to Engage in Delinquent Behavior? Age 15-19, in the United States and Other Developed Nations

  • Many risk factors and causality is not clear

    • Poor school performance

    • Delinquent friends, substance abuse

    • Early aggressive or hyperactive behaviors

    • Low verbal IQ, immature moral reasoning

    • Low self-esteem and impulsivity

    • Parents and/or siblings have been involved in antisocial behaviors

  • Prevention and Treatment

    • Focus on individual offender

    • Focus on systems

    • Early childhood intervention programs


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How Many Adolescents Commit Suicide? Why? Age 15-19, in the United States and Other Developed Nations

  • Among older teens – suicide is 3rd or 4th leading cause of death

  • Risk factors for suicide

    • Depression and hopelessness

    • Confusion about self, interpersonal problems

    • Impulsiveness, emotional instability

    • Stressful life events

  • Origins of suicide

    • Social problems

      • Less capable of solving problems

    • Genetics

      • Suicide and psychological problems runs in families


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How Do We Define Adulthood? Age 15-19, in the United States and Other Developed Nations

  • Many different criterion for adulthood

    • Historically – marriage

    • Today – Independent from parents

      • Financial and residence


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How Do We Define Emerging Adulthood? Age 15-19, in the United States and Other Developed Nations

  • Distinct period – straddles 18 through 25

    • Extended period for exploration

    • Appear in affluent societies

  • Erikson’s moratorium

    • Extended search for identity


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Erikson’s Stages of Adulthood? Age 15-19, in the United States and Other Developed Nations

  • Intimacy vs Isolation

  • Generativity vs Stagnation

  • Integrity vs Despair