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The Mother Tongue. Indo-European Languages. Cultural Fusion of the Early Middle Ages 5th-11th centuries. Fall of Rome Celtic Influences Norse-Germanic Influences Spread of Christianity throughout Europe Islamic Influences Feudalism Empires and Kingdoms. Celtic Migrations.

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the mother tongue

The Mother Tongue

Indo-European Languages

cultural fusion of the early middle ages 5th 11th centuries
Cultural Fusion of the Early Middle Ages5th-11th centuries
  • Fall of Rome
  • Celtic Influences
  • Norse-Germanic Influences
  • Spread of Christianity throughout Europe
  • Islamic Influences
  • Feudalism
  • Empires and Kingdoms




celtic influences
Celtic Influences
  • Decorative
    • Animal motifs
    • Arabesques
  • Religious
    • Scholarship
    • Monasticism
  • Literary
    • Epics and folklore
    • Sovranty: Love-Political Triangle
      • King-Queen-Suitor/Challenger
      • Arthur-Guinevere-Lancelot
fall of rome
Fall of Rome
  • 330: Constantine moved the capitol of the Roman Empire to Constantinople
  • 402: Honorius moved capitol of the Western Empire from Rome to Ravenna
  • 410: Visigoths sacked Rome
  • 455: Vandals sacked Rome and took control of N. Africa and Spain
  • 5th c.: Waves of Angles, Saxons and Jutes invaded Britain and Burgundians controlled much of France
  • 476: Goths seized Rome: Odoacer became Emperor
germanic comitatus or kinship groups
Germanic Comitatus or Kinship Groups
  • König, eorlas und thanes: kings, nobles and warrior
  • Mutual loyalty -- warriors fight for king, king is generous to warriors
  • Originally a socially egalitarian setup, during the third and fourth centuries CE, it became socially stratified
  • Basis for feudal loyalty
  • Ideal and philosophy expressed in oral epics like Beowulf and The Song of Roland
I've been with sword and,spearslippery with bright bloodwhere kites wheeled. And how wellwe violent Vikings clashed!Redflames ate up men's roofs,raging we killed and killed;and skewered bodies sprawledsleepy in town gateways.
the normans
The Normans
  • Vikings, or Norsemen, who settled in northern France (or the Frankish kingdom), together with their descendants
  • A Viking named Rollo emerged as the leader among the new settlers.
  • The Normans founded the duchy of Normandy and sent out expeditions of conquest and colonization to southern Italy and Sicily and to England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland.
norman conquest
Norman Conquest
  • 1066: Contest for the English crown:
    • Harold, Earl of Wessex: Anglo-Saxon claimant
    • Harald Hardrada of Norway
    • William Duke of Normandy
  • Battle of Stamford Bridge: Harold defeated Hardrada's army which invaded using over 300 ships; so many were killed that only 25 ships were needed to transport the survivors home.
  • Battle of Hastings: William led Norman forces against the English. Harold killed in battle; William seized the throne
  • William the Conqueror
norman castles

Tower of London

Norman Castles

Motte and Bailey


evolution of english language
Evolution of English Language
  • 650 bce- 500 ce: Celtic domination of British Isles: Gaelic: Irish, Welsh, Scots, Breton
  • 2nd C. ce: Roman conquest: Latin
  • 5th C. ce: Germanic invasions by Angles, Saxons and Jutes: Anglo-Saxon/Old English
  • 8th- 10th C: Viking invasions: Old Norse
  • 1066: Norman conquest: Norman French →Anglo-Norman
  • 1200-1500: Middle English: literary fusion
  • 1500: Great Vowel Shift: Early Modern English
  • 1700: Modern English