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Cold War Crisis Points. China to Terrorism. China Civil war in ’30s Nationalists v. Communists Joint Effort v. Japan in WW2 Civil War resumes ’40s Cold War. Nationalists Chiang Kai- Shek Corruption Ineffective Leader Support of USA Loses, flees Republic of China aka Taiwan. Communists

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cold war crisis points

Cold War Crisis Points

China to Terrorism

ChinaCivil war in ’30sNationalists v. CommunistsJoint Effort v. Japan in WW2Civil War resumes ’40sCold War
  • Nationalists
  • Chiang Kai-Shek
    • Corruption
    • Ineffective Leader
  • Support of USA
  • Loses, flees
  • Republic of China aka Taiwan
  • Communists
  • Mao Zedong
    • Long March
    • Peasant support
  • Support of USSR
  • Wins 1949… domino
  • People’s Republic of China… mainland
communists vs nationalists
Communists vs. Nationalists

Jiang Jieshi (a.k.a. Chiang Kai-shek)

Mao Zedong

communists vs nationalists1
Communists vs. Nationalists
  • Civil War Resumes
    • Economic problems cause Nationalist soldiers to desert to Communists
    • Mao’s troops take control of China’s major cities
    • In 1949, People’s Republic of China is created
    • Nationalists flee to Taiwan
the two chinas affect the cold war
The Two Chinas Affect the Cold War
  • The Superpowers React
    • U.S. supports Nationalist state in Taiwan, called Republic of China
    • Soviets and China agree to help each other in event of attack
    • U.S. tries to stop Soviet expansion and spread of communism in China
the two chinas affect the cold war1
The Two Chinas Affect the Cold War
  • China Expands under the Communists
    • China takes control of Tibet and southern Mongolia
    • India welcomes Tibetan refugees fleeing revolt against Chinese
    • China and India clash over border; fighting stops but tensions remain
the communists transform china
The Communists Transform China
  • Communists Claim a New “Mandate of Heaven”
    • Chinese Communists organize national government and Communist Party
  • Mao’s Brand of Marxist Socialism
    • Mao takes property from landowners and divides it among peasants
    • Government seizes private companies and plans production increase
the communists transform china1
The Communists Transform China
  • New Policies and Mao’s Response
    • China and Soviet Union clash over leadership of communist movement
    • Strict socialist ideas are moderated, Mao reduces his role in government
    • Red Guards—militia units formed to enforce strict communism in China
the communists transform china2
The Communists Transform China
  • The Cultural Revolution
    • Cultural Revolution—movement to build society of peasants and workers
    • Red Guards—groups of violent and radical youth—close schools and execute or imprison many intellectuals
    • In 1968, Chinese army imprisons, executes, or exiles most Red Guards who have been labeled by the government “Counter Revolutionary.”
    • However, the Cultural Revolution continues until Mao’s death in 1976.
The Red Guards: China’s Teenage Police Force

Between 1966 and 1976, students in China’s Red Guard waged a Cultural Revolution on teachers and professionals that left a million people dead and the country in chaos.

korea cold war by proxy
Korea: Cold War by Proxy
  • Korea Divided @ 38th ││
  • USSR > N. Korea
  • USA >> S. Korea
  • NK invades SK
  • UN Police Action
    • US troops
    • Douglas MacArthur
  • Stalemate
  • Armistice 1953
  • Was it worth it?
war in korea
War in Korea
  • Standoff at the 38th Parallel
    • In 1950, North Koreans invade South Korea with Soviet support
    • South Korea requests UN assistance; 15 nations send troops
    • Douglas MacArthur—leads UN forces against North Koreans
    • North Koreans controls most of the peninsula when MacArthur attacks
    • Half of North Korea’s army surrenders, the rest retreat
war in korea1
War in Korea
  • The Fighting Continues
    • UN troops push North Koreans almost to Chinese border
    • Chinese send 300,000 troops against UN forces and capture Seoul
    • MacArthur calls for nuclear attack and is removed from command
    • In 1953, cease fire signed and border established at 38th parallel
war in korea2
War in Korea
  • Aftermath of the War
    • North Korea builds collective farms, heavy industry, nuclear weapons
    • South Korea establishes democracy, growing economy with U.S. aid
the khrushchev era de stalinization
The Khrushchev Era & De-Stalinization
  • Stalin dies ’53
  • Nikita Khrushchev emerges
  • De-Stalinization
    • Secret Speech ’56
      • Denounce Stalin
      • Remove Stalin supporters
    • Purge Memory of Stalin
        • Destroy monuments
    • Peaceful Competition
the cold war divides the world
The Cold War Divides the World
  • The Threat of Nuclear War
    • Soviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb in 1949
    • U.S. and Soviet Union both develop the more powerful hydrogen bomb
    • Brinkmanship—policy of willingness to go to the edge of war
    • Increasing tensions lead to military buildup by U.S. and the Soviets
the cold war divides the world1
The Cold War Divides the World
  • The Cold War in the Skies
    • In 1957, Soviets launch Sputnik, first unmanned satellite. THE SPACE RACE BEGINS!
    • In 1960, Soviets shoot down American spy plane (a U-2), increasing tensions
cold war crisis points1
Cold War Crisis Points
  • Hungarian Uprising 1956
    • Imre Nagy
      • Sought greater independence from USSR
      • Sought coalition with non-communists
      • Sought Hungarian neutrality
    • Seizure
      • Protesters seize radio station… HELP!
      • No US response…??
    • Soviet response
      • Soviet tanks crush uprising
      • Nagy executed > New Pro-Soviet leader Janos Kadar
  • Result
    • Cold War boundaries solidified in E. Europe
    • US - Soviet spheres accepted in Europe
cold war crisis points2
Cold War Crisis Points
  • Sputnik ’57
    • Soviet victory = Western fear
    • Kitchen debates w/ Nixon
  • U-2 Incident
    • US spy-plane shot down
    • US lies > no apology > ↑ tension
  • Communist Split
    • Soviet vs. Chinese
      • Doctrine & Spheres of Influence
  • Berlin Wall ’61
    • Vienna Conference w/ JFK
    • US response > Wall
  • Cuban Missile Crisis ’62
    • Soviet nukes in Cuba > “Quarantine”
  • Khrushchev ‘resigns’
confrontations in latin america
Confrontations in Latin America
  • Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution
    • Fidel Castro—leads revolt in Cuba against dictator supported by the U.S.
    • By 1959, Castro in power, nationalizes economy, takes U.S. property
    • In 1961, Castro defeats U.S. trained Cuban exiles at the Bay of Pigs
confrontations in latin america1
Confrontations in Latin America
  • Nuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile Crisis
    • In 1962, U.S. demands removal of Soviet missiles in Cuba
    • Soviets withdraw missiles; U.S. promises not to invade Cuba
    • Cuban economy is left dependent on Soviet support
from brinkmanship to d tente
From Brinkmanship to Détente
  • Brinkmanship Breaks Down
    • Brinkmanship cause repeated crises; nuclear war a constant threat
    • John F. Kennedy—U.S. president during the Cuban Missile Crisis
    • Lyndon Johnson—president who increases U.S. involvement in Vietnam
from brinkmanship to d tente1
From Brinkmanship to Détente
  • The United States Turns to Détente
    • Vietnam-era turmoil fuels desire for less confrontational policy
    • Détente—policy of reducing Cold War tensions to avoid conflict
    • Richard M. Nixon—U.S. president who launches détente
    • Détente grows out of philosophy known as realpolitik—”realistic politics”—recognizes need to be practical and flexible
cold war crisis points the brezhnev era
Cold War Crisis PointsThe Brezhnev Era
  • Policy Changes
    • ↑repression ↓freedoms
    • Arrest of A. Solzhenitsyn
  • Czechoslovakia 1968
    • A. Dubcek softens Czech communism
    • Soviet invasion >> Brezhnev Doctrine
  • Détente
    • Ike, JFK, LBJ = Brinkmanship
    • Nixon = realpolitik + détente>> ↓ tension
      • Nixon visits China & USSR >> SALT ITreaty
  • Afghanistan 1979
    • Muslim revolt vs. Afghan Communist regime
    • Soviet invasion >> 10 Year War >> Soviets leave ’89
      • Moscow Olympics boycotted by US & allies
      • Ruins Soviet economy
      • US supports Taliban & Osama Bin-Laden vs. USSR
from brinkmanship to d tente2
From Brinkmanship to Détente
  • Nixon Visits Communist Powers
    • Nixon visits Communist China and Soviet Union, signs SALT I Treaty
    • SALT—Strategic Arms Limitation Talks—limits nuclear weapons
the collapse of d tente
The Collapse of Détente
  • Policy Changes
    • Nixon and Gerald Ford improve relations with Soviets and China
    • Jimmy Carter has concerns about Soviet policies but signs SALT II
    • Congress will not ratify SALT II due to Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
confrontations in the middle east
Confrontations in the Middle East
  • The Superpowers Face Off in Afghanistan
    • Soviets invade Afghanistan to help Communist government against rebels
    • Muslim rebels fight guerilla war against Soviets with U.S. weapons
    • U.S. stops grain shipments to Soviet Union
    • Soviets eventually withdraw in 1989
cold war crisis points poland 1980s solidarity movement
Cold War Crisis Points Poland & 1980s Solidarity Movement
  • Economic Failure of Communist Party
    • Food & Product Shortages
  • Pope John Paul II– Polish Pope – Paves Way for Reform
  • ↑ Meat Prices >> Protests >> STRIKES!
  • Aug 80
    • Lech Walesa & Workers gained right to organize
    • Independent union – Solidarity - formed
  • Sept 80
    • Polish Communist Leadership replaced
    • Solidarity officially recognized
    • Radio broadcast of Catholic Mass –WOW!
  • Summer 81
    • Secret Ballot Elections held… WOW!
  • Crackdown!
    • Martial Law declared by Gen. Jaruzelski 1981 – 83
    • Avoided Soviet invasion
the collapse of d tente1
The Collapse of Détente
  • Reagan Takes an Anti-Communist Stance
    • Ronald Reagan—anti-Communist U.S. president takes office in 1981
    • Reagan increases military spending and proposes a missile defense program
    • In 1985, new Soviet leadership allows easing of Cold War tensions
confrontations in latin america2
Confrontations in Latin America
  • Civil War in Nicaragua
    • Anastasio Somoza Debayle—Nicaraguan dictator supported by the U.S.
    • Daniel Ortega—leads Sandinista rebels who take power in Nicaragua
    • U.S. and Soviet Union both initially support Sandinistas
    • Sandinistas aid Communist rebels in El Salvador
    • U.S. helps anti-Communist Contras in Nicaragua to assist El Salvador
    • In 1990, Nicaragua holds first free elections, Sandinistas lose
Anastasio Somoza Debayle (U.S. supported president of Nicaragua from 1967-1980)

Daniel Ortega on Time magazine, March 31, 1986

cold war de colonization transforming colonies to countries
Cold War & De-ColonizationTransforming Colonies to Countries
  • GB & India
    • Mohandas K Gandhi
    • Passive Resistance – Civil Disobedience
      • 1920s – 1940s >> Indian Independence
    • Indian National Congress
      • Textile Boycott & Salt March
    • Indian Independence & Partition
      • Muslim League – Muhammad Ali Jinnah
      • Pakistan = Muslim / India = Hindu
      • Tensions persist … Kashmir
france vietnam cold war by proxy
France & Vietnam: Cold War by Proxy
  • French Indochina
    • WW2 = J takes it!
    • Post-WW2
    • F wants it back!
  • Ho Chi Minh + Vietminh seek independence
  • Dien Bien Phu = F lost
  • Geneva Conference ’54
    • Split @ 17th║
    • US backs Ngo Dinh Diem (SV)
    • Ho Chi Minh (NV)
  • US involvement … ’61 thru ’73
    • Advisors > Air > Infantry Escalation > Vietnamization > Withdrawal
  • SV surrenders 4/30/75
  • Vietnam remains Communist
war breaks out in vietnam
War Breaks Out in Vietnam
  • The Road to War
    • Ho Chi Minh—Vietnamese nationalist, later Communist leader
  • The Fighting Begins
    • In 1954, French surrender to Vietnamese after major defeat
    • Domino theory—U.S. theory of Communist expansion in Southeast Asia

Ho Chi Minh

The War in Vietnam, 1957-1973

Note the Ho Chi Minh Trail through Laos and Cambodia

war breaks out in vietnam1
War Breaks Out in Vietnam
  • Vietnam—A Divided Country
    • International peace conference agrees on a divided Vietnam
    • Ngo Dinh Diem—leads anti-Communist government in South Vietnam
    • Vietcong—South Vietnamese Communist guerillas fighting against Diem

Ngo Dinh Diem

the united states gets involved
The United States Gets Involved
  • U.S. Troops Enter the Fight
    • In 1964, U.S. sends troops to fight Viet Cong and North Vietnamese
    • U.S. fights guerilla war defending increasingly unpopular government
    • Vietcong gains support from Ho Chi Minh, China, and Soviet Union
the united states gets involved1
The United States Gets Involved
  • The United States Withdraws
    • War grows unpopular in the U.S.; in 1969, Nixon starts withdrawing troops
    • Vietnamization—Nixon’s plan to withdraw U.S. from war gradually
    • Last U.S. troops leave in 1973; South Vietnam overrun in 1975
postwar southeast asia
Postwar Southeast Asia
  • Vietnam after the War
    • Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City; Vietnam united as Communist nation
    • About 1.5 million people flee Vietnam, some settling in the U.S. and Canada
    • In 1995, United States normalizes relations with Vietnam
postwar southeast asia1
Postwar Southeast Asia
  • Cambodia in Turmoil
    • Khmer Rouge—Communist rebels who take control of Cambodia in 1975
    • They slaughter 2 million people; overthrown by Vietnamese invaders
    • In 1993, Cambodia adopts democracy, holds elections with UN help

Pol Pot, leader of the Khmer Rouge (Cambodian Communist Party, literally “Red Khmers”) in 1977 at the height of his power

postwar southeast asia2
Postwar Southeast Asia
  • The Killing Fields were a number of sites in Cambodia where large numbers of people were killed and buried by the Khmer Rouge regime, during its rule of the country from 1975 to 1979, immediately after the end of the Vietnam War.
postwar southeast asia3
Postwar Southeast Asia
  • At least 200,000 people were executed by the Khmer Rouge (while estimates of the total number of deaths resulting from Khmer Rouge policies, including disease and starvation, range from 1.4 to 2.2 million out of a population of around 7 million).

A commemorative stupa filled with the skulls of the victims.

cold war gorbachev era soviet collapse
Cold War – Gorbachev Era – Soviet Collapse
  • Soviet Internal Issues
    • Economic Stagnation
    • Corruption
    • Military Expenses
  • Gorbachev’s Reforms
    • Perestroika = Restructuring
      • ↓ Gov’t Role / ↑Free Market No economic ∆
      • ’88 New Constitution… Open elections, autonomy?
    • Glasnost = Openness
      • ↓Censorship… ↑Free Expression… ↑ Debate
  • The Results
    • ↓ Communist Authority
    • Freedom NOW!
cold war end
Cold War End
  • Reagan Administration
    • ↑ Rhetoric
      • USSR is “Evil Empire”
      • “Mr. Gorbachev, Tear Down This Wall”
    • ↑ Military Spending
      • SDI or Star Wars = Space Based Defense
    • ↓ Trade Embargo with USSR
      • Sold Wheat to USSR
1989 a big year
1989 – A Big Year
  • Poland
    • Solidarity wins elections!
  • Hungary
    • Opens borders w/Austria
  • Germany
    • Berlin Wall comes down
  • Czechoslovakia
    • Vaclav Havel’s Velvet Revolution
  • Romania
    • Violent Revolt
  • USSR = No Soviet interference
  • China = Tiananmen Square
post cold war ussr
Post – Cold War USSR
  • Gorbachev 1990
    • Share political power
      • Old School –Yeltsin – Republics
  • The Break-Up 1991
    • Baltic States - Lithuania
    • August Coup Attempt
    • Yeltsin denounces
    • CIS created 12/91
post cold war yeltsin era
Post- Cold War Yeltsin Era
  • Reforms > From Russia with Love
    • Russian Democracy + Free Market
    • Privatization > Oligarchs
    • Turmoil in CIS
  • Yeltsin as a Survivor
    • Impasse > Suspended P / Deposed Y
    • West & Army Supports Y
    • Resigns > V. Putin is successor
  • Internal Conflict
    • Chechnya… Beslan Disaster
collapse of yugoslavia
Collapse of Yugoslavia
  • Creation of Yugoslavia Post WW1
    • Multi-ethnic regions
    • Monarchy > Constitutional Monarchy > Communist dictatorship
  • Leadership
    • Marshall Tito = dictator
    • Slobodan Milosevic = dictator
  • The Break-up 1990s
    • Serbs reassert supremacy
    • Croatia & Slovenia declare independence
    • Civil War 1991 – Serbs v. Croats
    • Civil War 1992
      • Division of Bosnia-Herzegovina
      • Ethnic Cleansing / Genocide
      • Bombing of Sarajevo > UN > NATO
  • The Result
    • Dayton Accords…peace??
    • Ongoing Conflict >> Kosovo
confrontations in the middle east1
Confrontations in the Middle East
  • Religious and Secular Values Clash in Iran
    • Shah Reza Pahlavi embraces Western governments and oil companies
    • Iranian nationalists overthrow shah, seize British oil company
    • U.S. restores shah to power, fearing Soviet encroachment

Shah Reza Pahlavi

confrontations in the middle east2
Confrontations in the Middle East
  • The United States Supports Secular Rule
    • Shah Reza Pahlavi westernizes Iran with U.S. support
    • Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini—Iranian Muslim leader; lives in exile
    • In 1978, Khomeini sparks riots in Iran, Shah flees
confrontations in the middle east3
Confrontations in the Middle East
  • Khomeini’s Anti-U.S. Policies
    • Islamic revolutionaries hold American hostages in Tehran (1979-1981) for 444 days
    • Muslim radicals take control in Iran, increasing tensions with Iraq
    • Saddam Hussein, fearing the spread of the Iranian Revolution into Iraq, attacks Iran.
    • Iran and Iraq fight an 8-year war; U.S. aids both sides, Soviets help Iraq
the cold war radical islam
The Cold War & Radical Islam
  • Rooted in Arab Nationalism
    • Reject Western ideas
    • Create an Islamic Society
      • Wahhabism, Taliban, etc.
    • Oil creates Haves & Have-nots
  • ’79 Iran Revolution
    • Ayatollah Khomeini vs. Westernization
    • US Hostage Crisis – 444 Days
    • Fundamentalist Regime
  • ’79 Soviet – Afghan War
    • Jihad vs. Soviets… US backs Taliban
    • Taliban establishes Fundamentalist regime
  • ‘91Persian Gulf War
    • US bases on “holy” soil in Saudi Arabia
    • Jihad vs. USA… Osama bin Laden
      • WTC – Embassies – USS Cole – 9/11 >>>

War on Terror