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Solar System. The sun (central star) and all things orbiting around it, including the eight major planets, their satellites (moons), dwarf planets, and all the smaller pieces such as asteroids, meteoroids, and comets.

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solar system
Solar System
  • The sun (central star) and all things orbiting around it, including the eight major planets, their satellites (moons), dwarf planets, and all the smaller pieces such as asteroids, meteoroids, and comets.
  • These various celestial bodies are trapped in a constant orbit around the Sun by its strong gravitational pull.

Not to scale

Image taken from:

http://asm.arc.nasa.gov/Gallery/images/generic/LG_Capableofeverything.jpg

formation of the solar system
Formation of the Solar System

Formed around 4.6 billion years ago

Solar Nebula

Huge cloud of gas and dust that collapsed into a flattened disk

1

Disk

Sun formed at the center of the disk while other objects (planets, moons, etc.) formed from the whirling material of the disk

2

Solar System

Much of the material was cleared away. The Sun, planets, and other objects remained

3

Images taken from:

http://astronomyonline.org/SolarSystem/SolarSystemFormation.asp

planet
Planet
  • derived from a Greek word that means “wanderer”
  • a major object which orbits around a star
  • in our solar system, there are eight such objects which are traditionally called “planets”
orbit
Orbit
  • the path of an object in space as it travels around another object
  • planets orbit around the sun in an elliptical (flattened circle or oval) path; proposed by Johannes Kepler  Kepler’s 1st Law
  • due to the gravitational attraction, a planet’s (or other object’s) speed increases as it approaches the sun
  • Planetary Motion

Not to scale

The Earth animation is not rotating in the correct direction;

it should be rotating from west to east

What do you think is the relationship between a planet’s orbit and a “year?”

mass vs weight
Mass

a measure of how much matter an object is made of

does not change, regardless of where something or someone is

Weight

the force of gravity on an object

equal to the mass of the body times the local acceleration of gravity

Mass vs. Weight

Why do you think the person’s weight is less on the moon?

The Earth animation is not rotating in the correct direction;

it should be rotating from west to east

Mass = 59 kg

Mass = 59 kg

Weight = 96 N

Weight = 579 N

http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/weight/index.html

rotation vs revolution
Rotation

the movement or path of the earth or a heavenly body turning on its axis

equivalent to one “day”

Earth rotates at a speed of around 1,670 km/hr or 1000 mi/hr

Revolution

the motion of one body around another, such as Earth orbiting around the sun

also known as an orbital period

equivalent to one “year”

Earth revolves at a speed of around 107,000 km/hr or 67,000 mi/hr

Rotation vs. Revolution

The Earth animation is not rotating in the correct direction;

it should be rotating from west to east

Sun

Tips for remembering:

rotation occurs in one day; day has three letters and rotation has three syllables

revolution occurs in one year; year has four letters and revolution has four syllables

factors influencing planetary characteristics
Factors Influencing Planetary Characteristics

Impact Cratering

a process that occurs when a round pit is left behind on the surface of a planet or other body in space after a smaller object strikes the surface

Tectonics

the process of change in a crust due to the motion of hot material underneath

Animation taken from:

http://www.odsn.de/odsn/services/paleomap/animation.htm l

Volcanism

the process of molten material moving from a space body’s hot interior onto its surface

The Earth animation is not rotating in the correct direction;

it should be rotating from west to east

Weathering and Erosion

Weathering - the breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces; mostly caused by movements of water, wind, and ice

Erosion – the process in which sediment is picked up and moved from one place to another

atmosphere
Atmosphere

Radiant energy from the sun

  • the outer layer of gases of a large body in space, such as a planet or star
  • usually composed of layers
  • Greenhouse Effect
    • the trapping of radiant energy by the gases (CO2, CH4, H2O, among others) that compose the atmosphere
    • planetary conditions would be very different without it (i.e. – the Earth’s temperature would be 60oF cooler we would not survive)

The Earth animation is not rotating in the correct direction;

it should be rotating from west to east

What do you notice about the amount of energy entering the atmosphere, compared to the amount leaving?

slide9

Image taken from:

http://www.ucar.edu/learn/1_1_1.htm

planet classifications
Terrestrial Planets

(inner planets)

Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars

closest to the sun

composed primarily of rock and metal

have deep atmospheres (except Mercury), solid surfaces, no rings, & few satellites

Gas Planets

(outer planets)

Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

composed primarily of hydrogen & helium

have deep atmospheres, rings, & many satellites

Planet Classifications
slide11

Mercury

Terrestrial Planets:

Mercury and Venus

These “inner planets” are called “terrestrial planets” because they resemble Earth, “terra-” means “Earth”

Venus 

slide12

Mercury

Surface: Thin, hard rocky surface covered with many plains and craters.

Atmosphere- very thin, some sodium and other gases

There is NOT any sign of life on Mercury, lack of water and oxygen along with hot temperatures make life unlikely

Image on bottom from http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/BrowseTheSolarSystem/gifs/mercury2.gif

Top Image from http://pds .jpl.nasa.gov/planets/images/browse/mercury/mercury1.jpg

slide13

Venus

  • Sometimes called “Earth’s twin” or “Earth’s sister planet” due to similarity
  • Rotates very slowly, one rotation takes about 8 Earth months and one revolution around sun takes about 7.5 Earth months (One day is longer than one year)
  • Atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide so greenhouse effect is strong
  • Ability to support life- Life does NOT appear to exist on Venus, lack of water along with harsh temperatures and atmosphere make life on Venus unlikely

Atmosphere- Very thick and cloudy, mostly carbon dioxide, clouds partly sulfuric acid

Atmospheric pressure is 90 times heavier than Earth’s and would crush a human

slide14

Terrestrial Planets:

  • Earth and Mars

Earth’s crust is a solid rocky surface, 70% is covered by water

Atmosphere- up to 100 km thick, made up of 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 1% other gases

The 4 terrestrial planets are very similar to each other, they are small and have rocky surfaces. They are dense. Do NOT have rings

Mars has a rocky surface with carbonate rocks high in iron, creating red color. Polar ice caps contain frozen water and carbon dioxide

slide15

The Outer Planets

Jupiter

Saturn

Uranus pronounced “YOOR-a-nus”

Neptune

Pluto (a dwarf Planet)

  • These are the planets outside of the Asteroid Belt, they are: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and the dwarf planets Pluto and Eris
  • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are called “Gas Giants” .They are much larger than Earth and do not have solid surfaces
  • Pluto and Eris are small and rocky, like the terrestrial planets.
  • The gas giants do not have well-defined surfaces but have deep atmospheres that are typically about 75% hydrogen, 24% helium, and 1% other elements
  • Gas giants likely have solid cores of rock, ice, frozen carbon dioxide and other compounds
jupiter
Jupiter
  • Size- diameter is 11 times Earth’s, It is 142,800 km
  • Surface and atmosphere of gas and liquid it does not have a well-defined surface
  • Has a deep atmosphere of about 86 % hydrogen,14 % helium, and tiny amounts of methane, ammonia, water, and carbon monoxide.
  • Ability to support life- Lacks water, oxygen and moderate temperatures needed to support life. NO known life
  • Largest planet in solar system with 300 times the mass of Earth
  • Rotation- .41 Earth days (fastest)
  • Revolution- 29 Earth years

Great Red Spot is storm on Jupiter, twice as big as Earth

jupiter1
Jupiter

Jupiter and moon Io

Image on left from http://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/images/browse/jupiter/jupiter.jpg

Image on right from http://www.spacetoday.org/images/SolSys/Jupiter/JupiterBelowIo2001.jpg

saturn
Saturn
  • Size- About 9.44 times size of Earth. It is 120,540 km
  • Surface and atmosphere of a gas giant, it does not have a well-defined surface but has syrup like mixture of helium and hydrogen and a thick atmosphere of gaseous helium and hydrogen
saturn continued
Saturn continued
  • Ability to support life- Lacks water, oxygen, and moderate temperatures needed to support life
  • Second largest planet in solar system
  • Rotation- 0.43 Earth days
  • Revolution- 29 Earth years
  • Low density planet, could float in water
  • Prominent rings- diameter of 250,000 km or more but only about 1 kilometer thick, mostly chunks of ice and rocks
saturn1
Saturn

Image on right from http://www.adlerplanetarium.org/cyberspace/planets/saturn/images/saturns_ring_plane.jpg

Image on left fromhttp://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/images/full/saturn/saturn.jpg

uranus
Uranus
  • pronounced “YOOR-a-nus”
  • Size- About 4 times diameter of Earth. It is 51,200 km
  • Distance from Sun- About 19 times farther from sun than Earth. It is 2,871,000,000 km
  • Surface and atmosphere of a gas giant, it does not have a well-defined surface
uranus continued
Uranus continued
  • the surface of Uranus consists of blue-green clouds made up of tiny ice crystals of methane, and rock. The crystals of methane have frozen out of the planet's atmosphere.
  • Uranus' atmosphere is about 83% hydrogen, 15% helium and 2% methane.

Ability to support life- Lacks water, oxygen, and moderate temperatures needed to support life, NO known life

Rotation- 0.72 Earth days, is retrograde rotation like Venus, and rotates on side

Revolution- 84 Earth years

Rings- 11 dark rings

uranus1
Uranus

Image on left from http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/image/uranus.jpg

Image on right from http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/139938main_uranus_ring.jpg

neptune
Neptune
  • Size- Almost 4 times diameter of Earth. It is 49,500 km
  • Distance from Sun- Almost 30 times farther from sun than Earth. It is 4,497,000,000 km
  • Surface and atmosphere of a gas giant, it does not have a well-defined surface
  • Neptune's composition is probably similar to Uranus': various "ices" and Silicates (rock) with about 15% hydrogen, some water, and a little helium
neptune continued
Neptune continued
  • Atmosphere is mostly hydrogen and helium with a small amount of methane.
  • Ability to support life- Lacks significant water, oxygen, and moderate temperatures needed to support life. NO known life.
  • Rotation- 0.67 Earth days
  • Revolution- 165 Earth years
  • Visible clouds in atmosphere
  • 3 Very dark rings, 1 very faint ring
neptune1
Neptune

Image on left from http://www.diracdelta.co.uk/science/source/n/e/neptune/neptune.jpg

Image on right from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/Neptune-visible.jpg

pluto
Pluto
  • Size- about 17% of diameter of Earth. It is 2200 km
  • Distance from sun- more than 39 times farther than Earth. It is 5,913,000,000 kilometers
  • Rocky, icy surface is very small
  • Thin atmosphere of methane gas
pluto continued
Pluto continued
  • Ability to support life- Lacks water, oxygen, and warmth needed for life

NO known life

  • Moons- 1 Charon (book), 3- Charon, Hydra and Nix (web and NASA)
  • Rotation- 6.4 Earth days
  • Revolution- 248 Earth years
pluto1
Pluto

Image on left from http://www.crh.noaa.gov/Image/fsd/astro/Pluto1.jpg

Image on right from http://www.jb.man.ac.uk/public/Pluto1.jpg

the dwarf planets
The Dwarf Planets
  • Ceres- new dwarf planet, it was classified as the largest asteroid in the Asteroid Belt (it is between Mars & Jupiter). Say sir’eez
  • Pluto- was classified as a planet, now classified as a dwarf planet
  • Eris- new dwarf planet, past Pluto it is an icy body near the edge of our solar system. Say ee’ris
the dwarf planets and their moons
The Dwarf Planets and their Moons

Image from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/our_solar_system/dwarf_planets/images/dwarf_planet_sizes_sm.jpg

planets and dwarf planets compared
Planets and Dwarf Planets compared
  • Dwarf planets are smaller than planets
  • Both orbit the Sun
  • Both are large enough that their gravity pulls them into the shape of a sphere
  • Planets clear smaller objects out of their orbit. Dwarf planets can not because of their weaker gravity

Information from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/our_solar_system/dwarf_planets/dwarf_planets.html