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Indus Valley Civilization 12.1. The Indian Subcontinent. South Asia – triangle jutting out into Indian ocean India being the larges country known as the Indian subcontinent Indus River was basis of India’s first civilization

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the indian subcontinent
The Indian Subcontinent
  • South Asia – triangle jutting out into Indian ocean
  • India being the larges country known as the Indian subcontinent
  • Indus River was basis of India’s first civilization
  • The Ganges River, in the northern India floods, created a huge, fertile plain good for farming
  • Tropical Climate with monsoons
    • Winter – dry winds from land to ocean
    • Summer – wet winds from ocean blow onto the land
    • Crops depend on summer monsoon – if they bring rain crops will do well, if not people will go hungry
an advanced civilization
An Advanced Civilization
  • 7000 BC farmers began growing crops
  • After 3000 BC cities began develop on the broad plains
  • 2500-1700 BC cities were the centers of advanced Indus Valley civilization
  • Indus Valley people had advanced knowledge of Mathematics
    • Helped create cities with thick walls, sewer system, and streets arranged in grid pattern
  • It had an agriculture economy
    • Farmers grew wheat, barley, and cotton and raised sheep, cattle, chickens, and goats
    • Domesticated animals for transportation
  • Trade was also bases for their economy
    • Jewelry, cotton, cloth, and teak (wood) were exports
    • Accurate weights and measures, and stone seals helped to advance trade
the origins of the indo aryans
The origins of the Indo-Aryans
  • Aryans were nomadic warriors who invaded and defeated the local people
  • Original inhabitants of India
  • As nomadic herders who entered and spread across India over a long period of time
  • They brought a new religion with them and expressed their beliefs through holy hymns and scriptures known as Vedas
the vedas
The Vedas
  • Passed down by mouth
  • Eventually Written in language called Sanskrit
  • More than a 1,000 sacred hymn
  • Talk about the gods and goddess – each represent natural forces like sky, sun, and fire
aryan life
Aryan Life
  • Cattle important because they could offer Gods butter and milk
  • Cattle provided both food and clothing
  • Wealth measured by size cattle herds
  • Loved dancing , music, chariot races, gambling, and skilled warriors
the caste system
The Caste System
  • Brahmins – priests
  • Kshatriyans – rulers and warriors
  • Vaishyas – landowners, bankers, merchants
  • Sudras – farmers, laborers, servants,
  • Dalits/ untouchables - people who performed dirty jobs
  • Based on birth rank – what caste your family was in and your occupation/job was based on your rank
    • Couldn’t be a doctor and be an untouchable (Dalits)
  • In the Beginning, one could not move from their caste