Indus Valley Civilization • The Indus Valley civilization flourished around 2,500 B.C. in the western part of South Asia, in what today is Pakistan and western India. It is often referred to as Harappan Civilization after its first discovered city, Harappa. • Today’s Class will discuss different Aspects of Indus Valley Civilization.
Indus Valley Civilization • 1 Discovery of Indus Valley Civilization • 2 Origins of Indus Valley Civilization • 3 Geography of Indus Valley Civilization • 4. Nature of Urbanization • 5 Trade and Commerce and Links with Outside World • 6 Theories Concerning the Decline of the Indus Valley Civilization. • Acknowledgement: All slides are obtained from the web site of http://www.harappa.com/har/har0.html
Discovery of Indus Valley Civilization • 1. Charles Masson Expedition: Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan and The Panjab (London, Richard Bentley,1842). • 2. The Expedition of Alexander Burnes, and the archaeologist Sir Alexander Cunningham in the 1870's. • 3. The excavation of Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni, and by R.D. Banerji in 1920s. • 4 The joint Pakistani American Harappa ArchaeologicalResearch Project
Origins of Indus Valley Civilization • 1. The Time Line of Indus Valley Civilization • 2. New Dates Concerning the Origins of the Indian Civilization • 3. Contemporary Ancient Civilizations.
Geography of Indus Valley Civilization The Range of Indus Valley • 1. Harappa and Mohenjodaro • 2. Lothal and the Indian Sites • 3. Continuation of Harappan Civilization in the Indo Gangetic Valley.
Nature of Urbanization • 1. Street Planning • 2. Granary • 3. Great Bath • 4. Social Organization • 5. Relations with Agrarian Hinterland.
Trade and Commerce with Outside World • 1. Nature of Trade and Commerce • 2. Routes of Trade and Commerce • 3. Articles of Trade and Commerce • 4. The Ruling Merchant Classes.
Theories of the Decline of Indus Valley Civilization • 1. The Myth of Aryan Invasion. • 2. Environmental Sifts • 3. New Researches