Download
the respiratory system n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Respiratory System PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The Respiratory System

The Respiratory System

122 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

The Respiratory System

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. The Respiratory System Function, Types of Respiration

  2. Respiration • External Respiration: exchange of gases between air in the lungs and in the blood • Internal Respiration: exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of the body • Cellular Respiration: use of oxygen by cells to produce ATP

  3. Transport of Gases (Review) • O2 + Hemoglobin = oxyhemoglobin • Most CO2 is carried as bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) in the blood • CO2 + H2O >> HCO3- + H+ • Some CO2 carried by RBC’s: • CO2+hemoglobin

  4. Respiration: Inspiration & Expiration • Inspiration/Inhalation: moves air into the lungs. • Muscles: controlled by phrenic nerve reflex arc • diaphragm (top to bottom movement) • external intercostals (front to back/side to side). • Expiration/Exhalation: moves air out of the lungs. • Muscles: • diaphragm

  5. Mechanics of Breathing: Inhalation • Diaphragm contracts/ flattens, moving downward • This ↑ the VOLUME in the thoracic cavity and ↓ the PRESSURE. • The pressure is now greateroutside of the thoracic cavity and air flows INTO the lungs. • External intercostals contract – lifts ribcage up

  6. Mechanics of Breathing: Exhalation • Diaphragm relaxes, moving ↑ • External intercostals relax • This ↓ the VOLUME in the thoracic cavity and ↑ the PRESSURE • The pressure is now greaterinside the thoracic cavity and • Air flows OUT of lungs.

  7. Forced Expiration • Muscles for forceful expiration: • internal intercostals—depress the ribcages, (↓ the front-to-back size of the thorax) • abdominal muscles—push the abdominal organs against the underside of the diaphragm, elevating it further

  8. Regulation of Breathing • Respiratory control center: • Brainstem: medulla & pons control rate/depth of breathing. • Cerebral cortex can override brainstem control (as in blowing up a balloon)

  9. Regulation of Breathing

  10. Spirometer: device used to measure the amount of air exchanged in breathing. • Tidal Volume (TV): amount of air breathed in and out with each breath (500ml) • Vital Capacity (VC): largest amount of air that can be moved in and out of the lungs in one inspiration and expiration • Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after expiring the tidal volume • Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): the amount of air that can be forcibly inspired over and above a normal respiration • VC = TV + IRV + ERV • Residual Volume (RV): the air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful expiration • Total Lung Capacity (TLC): total amount of air found in the lungs. TLC=VC+RV