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The Respiratory System

The Respiratory System

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The Respiratory System

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  1. The Respiratory System Chapter 23

  2. Introduction • The trillions of cells making up the body require a continuous supply of oxygen to carry out vita functions • We can survive only a few minutes without oxygen • As cells use oxygen, they give off carbon dioxide a waste product of cellular respiration

  3. Introduction • The major function of the respiratory system is to supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide • To achieve this function four distinct processes, collectively called respiration occur • Pulmonary ventilation • External respiration • Transport of respiratory gases • Internal respiration

  4. Introduction • Pulmonary ventilation • Air must be moved in and out of the lungs so that the gases in the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs are continually changed and refreshed • This air movement is commonly called ventilation or breathing

  5. Introduction • External respiration • Gas exchange (oxygen loading and carbon dioxide unloading) between the blood and the air-filled chambers of the lungs must occur

  6. Introduction • Transport of respiratory gases • Oxygen and carbon dioxide must be transported between the lungs and tissue cells of the body • This is accomplished by the cardiovascular system, which uses blood as the transporting fluid

  7. Introduction • Internal respiration • At systemic capillaries, gas exchanges (oxygen unloading and carbon dioxide loading) must be made between the blood and tissue cells

  8. Respiratory System • The organs of the respiratory system include the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

  9. Respiratory System • Functionally, the respiratory system consists of the respiratory and the conducting zones • The respiratory zone, the actual site of gas exchange, is composed of the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli • The conducting zone includes all other respiratory passageways, which provide fairly rigid conduits for air to reach the sites of gas exchange • Organs of the conducting zone clean, warm and humidify the incoming air

  10. The Nose • The nose is the only visible part of the respiratory system • The external framework of the nose

  11. The functions of the nose include Providing an airway for respiration Moistening and warming entering air Filtering inspired air and cleansing it of foreign matter Serving as a resonating chamber for speech Housing the olfactory receptors The Nose

  12. The Nose • The structures of the nose are divided into the • External nose • Nasal cavity • Surface features • Root (between eyes) • Bridge • Dorsum nasi • Apex • Philtrum • External nares • Alae

  13. The Nose • The nasal cavity lies in and posterior to the external nose • During breathing air enters the external cavity by passing through the external nares or nostrils • The nasal cavity is divided by a midline nasal septum • The nasal cavity is continuous posteriorly with the nasal portion of the pharynx through the internal nares

  14. The Nose • The roof of the nasal cavity is formed by the ethmoid and sphenoid bones of the skull • The floor is formed by the palate which separates it from the oral cavity below • Anteriorly, where the palate is supported by the maxillary processes and the palatine bones is considered the hard palate • The unsupported posterior portion is the muscular soft palate

  15. The Nose • The vestibule is lined with skin containing sebaceous and sweat glands and numerous hair follicles • The hair or vibrissae filter coarse particles from inspired air

  16. The Nose • The nasal cavity is lined with two types of mucous membrane • The olfactory mucosa, lining the slitlike superior region of the nasal cavity, contain the receptors for the sense of smell • The balance of the nasal cavity is lined with respiratory mucosa which is made up of pseudostratified columnar epithelium, containing scattered goblet cells, that rests on a lamina propria richly supplied with mucous and serous glands

  17. The Nose • Each day the mucous glands secrete about a quart of sticky mucous containing lysozyme, an antibacterial enzyme • The mucous traps inspired dust, bacteria and other debris, while lysozyme attacks and destroys bacteria chemically • The epithelial cells of the respiratory mucosa also secrete defensins, natural antibotics that help to get rid of invading microbes

  18. The Nose • The ciliated cells of the respiratory mucosa create a gentle current that moves the sheet of contaminated mucus posteriorly toward the throat where it is swallowed and digested by stomach juices • These ciliated cells become sluggish in cold weather allowing mucus to accumulate in the nasal cavity where it “runs” on a cold day

  19. The Nose • A rich plexus of thin walled veins underlies the nasal epithelium and warms the incoming air as it flows across the mucosal surface • Blood flow increases when the weather turns cold • Because of its superficial location and the extent of vessels, nosebleeds are common and often profuse

  20. The Nose • Protruding medially from each lateral wall of the nasal cavity are three mucosa-covered projections, the superior, middle and inferior conchae • The conchae serve to increase nasal turbulence in the nasal cavity • Mucus/sneeze

  21. The Paranasal Sinuses • The nasal cavity is surround by sinuses located in the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid and maxillary bones • They function to • Produce mucus • Lighten the skull • Warm the air • Voice resonance

  22. The Pharynx • The funnel shaped pharynx (throat) connects the nasal cavity and mouth to the larynx and esophagus inferiorly • It serves as a common pathway for food and air • The pharynx extends for about 5 inches from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebrae • Its three regions are nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx

  23. The Nasopharynx • The nasopharynx lies above the point of food entry, it serves only as an air passageway • During swallowing the uvula reflects posteriorly to close off the nasopharynx and prevent food from entering the nasal cavity

  24. The Nasopharynx • The nasopharynx is continuous with the nasal cavity through the internal nares • It ciliated pseudo- stratified epithelium produces mucus • Mucosa high on the posterior wall contains masses of lymphatic tissue, the pharyngeal tonsils or adenoids

  25. The Oropharynx • The oropharynx lies posterior to the oral cavity and is continuous with it through an archway called the fauces • Both swallowed food and air pass through • Lined with stratified squamous epithelium for protection from food abrasion and chemical trauma

  26. The Oropharynx • Three tonsils lie embedded in the oropharyngeal mucosa • Paired palatine tonsils • Lingual tonsil

  27. The Laryngopharynx • The laryngopharynx serves as a common pathway for food and air and is lined with stratified squamous epithelium • It lies directly posterior to the upright epiglottis and extends to the larynx where the digestive and respiratory pathways diverge

  28. The Laryngopharynx • The esophagus conducts food to the stomach while air enters the larynx anteriorly • During swallowing food has the “right of way” and air passage temporarily stops

  29. The Larynx • The larynx attaches to the hyoid bone superiorly and opens into the laryngopharynx • Inferiorly is is continuous with the trachea

  30. The Larynx • The larynx has three important functions • It provides an airway for respiration • Act as a switching mechanism to route air and food into the proper channels • Vocal cords housed in larynx are used in voice production

  31. The Larynx • The framework of the larynx is an arrangement of nine cartilages connected by membranes and ligaments • Except for the epiglottis, all laryngeal cartilages are made of hyaline

  32. The Larynx • The large, shield shaped thyroid cartilage is formed by the fusion of two cartilage plates • The laryngeal prominence marks the midline fusion point • The cricoid cartilage is anchored to the trachea inferiorly

  33. The Larynx • Three pairs of small cartilages, the arytenoid, cuneiform and corniculate form part of the lateral and posterior walls of the larynx • The arytenoid anchors the vocal cords

  34. The Larynx • The ninth cartilage the flexible, spoon shaped epiglottis is composed of elastic cartilage • It is almost entirely covered by mucosa • The epiglottis extends from the posterior aspect of the tongue to its anchoring point on the thyroid cartilage

  35. The Larynx • When only air is flowing into the larynx, the inlet to the larynx is open wide and the free edge of the epiglottis projects upward • During swallowing the larynx is pulled superiorly and the epiglottis tips to cover the laryngeal inlet

  36. The Vocal Folds • The vocal ligaments attach the arytenoid and thyroid cartilages • These ligaments are composed of elastic fibers • The vocal cords vibrate, producing sound as air rushes up from lungs

  37. The Vocal Folds • The opening through which air passes is the glottis • Superior to the vocal cords are the vestibular cords which play no part in voice production

  38. Vocal Folds • Stratified squamous epithelium lines the superior portion of the larynx, an area subject to food contact • Below the vocal folds the epithelium is pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium • Cilia move the mucus away from our lungs

  39. Voice Production • Speech involves the intermittent release of expired air and opening and closing of the glottis • The length of the true vocal cords and the size of the glottis are altered by the action of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles most of which move the arytenoid cartilages • As the length and tension of the vocal folds change, the pitch of the sound is altered

  40. Voice Production • The glottis is wide when we produce deep tones and narrows to a slit for high pitched sounds • Length and thickness of the vocal folds changes for males during puberty • Loudness of the voice depends on the force with which the airstream rushes across the vocal cords • The greater the force, the stronger the vibration and the louder the sound

  41. Sphincter Functions of Larynx • The vestibular folds can perform a sphincter function under certain conditions • In abdominal straining associated with defecation and urination, inhaled air is held temporarily in the lower respiratory tract by closing the epiglottis • The abdominal muscle then contract and the interabdominal pressure rises • The action know as the Valsalva manuever can also stabilize the trunk when one lifts a heavy load

  42. The Trachea • The trachea descends from the larynx through the neck and into the mediastinum • It ends by dividing into the two primary bronchi at midthorax • 10 cm long and 2.5 cm in diameter • The trachea is very flexible and mobile

  43. The Tracheal Wall • The tracheal wall consists of several layers that are common in many tubular organs of the body

  44. The Tracheal Wall • From internal to external these layers are the mucosa, submucosa, and adventitia

  45. The Tracheal Wall • The mucosa contains the same goblet cells containing pseudostratifed epithelium that occurs throughout most the of respiratory tract

  46. The Tracheal Wall • Its cilia continually propel mucus, loaded with dust particles and other debris, toward the larynx

  47. The Tracheal Wall • Smoking inhibits and ultimately destroys the cilia in the mucosa layer • When their function is lost, coughing is the only means of preventing mucus from accumulating in the lungs • Smokers with respiratory congestion should avoid medications that inhibit the cough reflex

  48. The Tracheal Wall • The submucosa, a connective tissue layer, contains seromucous glands that help produce the mucus “sheets” within the trachea

  49. The Tracheal Wall • The adventitia is a connective tissue layer that is reinforced by 16 to 20 C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage

  50. The Tracheal Wall • The cartilage rings prevent the trachea from collapsing and keep the airway open despite the changes in pressure that occur in breathing