The Respiratory System A group of ducts that are capable of filtering air from the environment before entering the pulmonary system
Respiratory Tracts Upper Respiratory Tract: nose, pharynx and larynx Lower Respiratory Tract: trachea, bronchial tree and lungs
Respiratory Mucosa Specialized membrane that lines the air distribution tubes in the respiratory tree Over 125 mL of mucous produced each day Mucus serves as an air purification mechanism by trapping inspired irritants such as dust and pollen Cilia on mucosal cells beat in only 1 direction, moving mucous upward to pharynx for removal.
The Nose • Functions • Warms and moistens inhaled air • Contains smell sense organs • Structure • Nasal septum separates into two cavities • Lined with mucus membrane • Sinuses drain into nose
Warming Function of Nasal Passageways Lab A partner, computer based lab
Pharynx (throat) • Functions • Passageway for food and liquids • Air distribution
Larynx • Functions: • Air distribution • Voice production • Structure • Thyroid cartilage: makes up Adam's apple • Epiglottis: partially covers opening to larynx
Trachea • Structure: • Tube approx. 11 cm long • Lined with mucous • C-shaped rings of cartilage hold the trachea open • Functions: • Passageway for air to move to and from the lungs *Blockage of the trachea results in 4000 deaths per year in the United States
Bronchi, Bronchioles and Alveoli • Function: • Bronchi and Bronchioles: air distribution • Alveoli: exchange of gases between air and blood • Structure: • Trachea branches into the right and left bronchi • Each bronchus branches into smaller and smaller tubes eventually leading to the bronchioles. • Bronchioles end in clusters of microscopic alveolar sacs. • The walls of the alveolar sacs are made up of alveoli
Respiration The mechanics of breathing • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SwYEFu-GKP4&feature=related
Mechanics of Breathing or Pulmonary Ventilation • Inspiration: movement of air into lungs • Diaphragm flattens • External intercostals contract elevating the ribs and increasing length of thoracic cavity • Increase in volume (size) causes a decrease in pressure and air enters the lungs. • Expiration: movement of air out of lungs • Thorax returns to resting size • Elastic recoil of lung tissue aids this process • This process can be forceful
Gas Exchange in the Lungs (External Respiration) Carbamino hemoglobin breaks down into CO2 and hemoglobin CO2 moves out of lung capillary blood into alveolar air and our of the body O2 moves from alveolar air into lung capillaries Hemoglobin combines with O2 producing oxyhemoglobin http://youtube.com/watch?v=bwXvqSqAgKc
Gas Exchange in Tissues Oxyhemoglobin breaks down into O2 and hemoglobin O2 moves our of tissue capillary blood and into tissue cells CO2 moves from tissue cells into tissue capillary blood Hemoglobin combines with Co2 forming carbamino hemoglobin
Air Volumes Tidal Volume: amount normally breathed in or out with each breat Vital Capacity: largest amount of air that one can breathe out in one expiration Expiratory Reserve Volume: amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after expiring the tidal volume Inspiratory Reserve Volume: amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled after a normal inspiration Residual Volume: air that remains in te lungs after the most forceful expiration
Lung Volumes and Capacities Lab A class demonstartion
Why Do I Yawn? When you are sleepy or drowsy the lungs do not take enough oxygen from the air. This causes a shortage of oxygen in our bodies. The brain senses this shortage of oxygen and sends a message that causes you to take a deep long breath---a YAWN.
Why Do I Sneeze? Sneezing is like a cough in the upper breathing passages. It is the body's way of removing an irritant from the sensitive mucous membranes of the nose.
What Causes Hiccups? Hiccups are the sudden involuntary movements of the diaphragm. There are many causes of hiccups. The diaphragm may get irritated, you may have eaten to fast, or maybe some substance in the blood could even have brought on the hiccups.
Your Voice http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=7653546673169306790&q=the+vocal+cords&total=798&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0 http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-4768747540890615043&q=the+vocal+cords&total=798&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=1 http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=8806032677498551906
The Doctors: What Cigarettes Do To Your Body http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SwYEFu-GKP4&feature=related