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The Respiratory System

The Respiratory System

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The Respiratory System

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  1. The Respiratory System

  2. Oxygen • Adult carries 2 quarts of oxygen in the blood, lungs, and tissues • This supply is enough to sustain life for 4 minutes • Oxygen concentration of air is 21% • Exhaled air still contains 16% oxygen

  3. Pathway of Oxygen • Nose • Enters nose and is filtered, warmed and moistened • Turbinates produce mucus and add moisture • Blood vessels warm • Cilia trap particles

  4. Pathway of Oxygen • Pharynx • Passage for both air and oxygen • Not possible to swallow food and breathe at the same time • Epiglottis • Covering over Larynx (voice box) • Directs food into the esophagus

  5. Pathway of Oxygen • Trachea (Windpipe) • Pipe extends from neck to chest in front of esophagus • Held open by a series of C-shaped rings • Divides at middle of sternum into right and left bronchi • Continually divide and divide into bronchioles

  6. Pathway of Oxygen • Alveoli • Ends of each bronchiole • Grapelike cluster of microscopic air sacs • Capillary • Surrounds all Alveoli • Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs here

  7. Lungs • Lungs divided into right and left • Right – has 3 lobes (upper, middle, lower) • Left – has 2 lobes (upper, lower) • Heart lies in cardiac notch – inside surface of left lung

  8. Lungs • Visceral Pleura – surrounds lungs • Parietal Pleura – lines thoracic cavity • Pleural space – airtight space between the two

  9. Muscles of Breathing • Diaphragm – Main muscle of breathing • Contracts – produces a vacuum, causing air to draw into the lungs • The diaphragm flattens • Relaxes – Air forced out of the lungs • The diaphragm returns back to elevated state

  10. Muscles of Breathing • Breathing is controlled by the center of the brain • Increased CO2 or lack of O2 can trigger the center • We can also voluntarily control breathing causing: • Coughing, Hiccups, Sneezing, Yawning, Crying

  11. Diagnostic Examinations • Arterial Blood Gas • Blood taken from artery • Evaluates the exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide • Determines: • pH (Acid-Base level) • PaO2 (how much O2 in lungs) • PaCO2 (how efficiently lungs eliminate CO2)

  12. Diagnostic Examinations • Bronchoscopy • Insertion of camera into trachea and bronchial tree • View airway, obtain secretion or tissue sample, remove foreign body • Bronchoscopy

  13. Diagnostic Examination • Chest CT Scan • Images give much detail of lungs and other structures • 4x more sensitive in detecting lung cancer than x-rays • Scan only takes a few minutes and does not require removal of clothes

  14. Diagnostic Examination • CT Guided Needle Biopsy • Use CT scan to guide needle into chest cavity to biopsy a lung mass

  15. Diagnostic Examination • Chest X-ray • Determine general health of lung

  16. Diagnostic Examination • Lung perfusion scan • Scan after radioactive contrast given in IV to provide visual image of pulmonary blood flow • Useful in diagnosing obstruction such as a pulmonary emboli

  17. Diagnostic Examination • Lung Ventilation Scan • Inhalation of mixture of air/radioactive gas • Indicates the area of the lung that is ventilated during respiration

  18. Diagnostic Examination • Pulmonary Function Test • Measure lung volume and lung capacity • Spirometer – used to evaluate the amount of air available in the lungs • Used to assist diagnose asthma and COPD

  19. Diagnostic Examination • Pulmonary Function Tests • Tidal Volume(Vt) – normal breathing: inhalation & exhalation • Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)- big breath in • Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) – Emptying of lungs as much as possible: big breath out • Residual Volume (RV) – air left in lung: can never totally empty lungs

  20. Diagnostic Examination • Pulmonary Function Test • Functional Residual Volume (FRV) – any air left in the lung after normal exhalation • Vital Capacity (VC) – The total amount of air that you can inhale and exhale • Total Lung Capacity (TLC) – The total amount of air that your lungs can hold

  21. Diagnostic Examination • Pulse Oximeter • Clip-like device that determines the amount of oxygen in the blood • O2 levels should be 90-100% • If under 90%, Oxygen should be administered

  22. Diagnostic Examination • Sputum Analysis • Lab exam of material coughed up from the bronchial tree or trachea • Aid in diagnosis of infectious disease or cancer cells

  23. Diagnostic Examination • Thoracentesis • Withdrawing of fluid from the pleural space by needle • Fluid can then be analyzed to determine disease

  24. Diseases and Disorders • Asthma • Inflammation and constriction of the bronchi and bronchioles • Symptoms – wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath • Caused by an allergic reaction • Treatment – Prevention, breathing treatments, or steroids

  25. Diseases and Disorders • Peak Flow • Use to measure lung volume • Use at home to monitor asthma attacks and effectiveness of medication

  26. Diseases and Disorders • Atelectasis • Lack of air in the lungs caused by the collapse of the alveoli • Symptoms – dyspnea, cyanosis, diaphoresis, tachycardia • Treatment – chest percussion, frequent coughing, Incentive Spirometry

  27. Diseases and Disorders • Incentive Spirometry • Improves lung function • Prevents atelectasis • Prevents fluid build-up

  28. Diseases and Disorders • Bronchitis • Inflammation of the bronchial walls • Acute – associated with an infection • Chronic – associated with history of cigarette smoke, excessive mucus production • Symptoms – cough, yellow-gray mucus, & sometimes sore throat, fever, soreness, shortness of breath • Treatment – Antibiotics, Respiratory Treatments, steroids

  29. Diseases and Disorders

  30. Diseases and Disorders • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) • Umbrella term that includes conditions such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma. • Symptoms occur gradually and become worse with age – dyspnea, productive cough, wheezing, hypoxia, thoracic deformities • Treatment – no treatment: only maintenance. • COPD • Video

  31. Diseases and Disorders • COPD • Maintenance – respiratory treatments, proper diet, use of oxygen, exercise rehab program, lung reduction surgery, and sometimes lung transplant.

  32. Diseases and Disorders • Emphysema • Irreversible enlargement of the air spaces in the lungs caused by destruction of alveolar walls. • Inability to exchange O2 and CO2 in affected areas • Chronic cough, weight loss, fatigue, barrel chest, use of accessory muscles, respiratory failure, heart enlargement, and death

  33. Diseases and Disorders • Emphysema • Treatment – breathing treatments, treatment of respiratory infections, proper diet, use of oxygen

  34. Diseases and Disorders • Influenza (Flu) • Highly contagious respiratory infection – spread by droplets • Usually occurs in colder months • Symptoms – chills, fever, headache, muscle ache, cough • Treatment – bed rest, fluids, aspirin

  35. Diseases and Disorders • Laryngitis • Inflammation of the vocal cords • Result of infection, excessive use of voice, inhalation of smoke/fumes • Symptoms – hoarseness, loss of voice, dry cough • Treatment – rest voice

  36. Diseases and Disorders • Pneumonia • Acute infection of the lung tissue • Symptoms – coughing, sputum production, chest pain, chills, fever • Treatment – bed rest, antibiotics, respiratory support (O2 & breathing treatments), and pain medication

  37. Diseases and Disorders • Pneumothorax • Air or gas has accumulated between the parietal and visceral pleura causing lung to collapse. • Symptom – sudden, sharp pain made worse by breathing/coughing • Treatment – bed rest & careful monitoring if small, chest tube if large

  38. Diseases and Disorders

  39. Diseases and Disorders • Pulmonary Fibrosis • Scaring of the lung tissue, making the lungs stiff and small • Symptom – shortness of breath, dry cough, tachypnea, crackling sound when listening to lungs (like pulling apart velcro) • Treatments – steroids, oxygen, and lung transplant • Pulmonary Fibrosis

  40. Diseases and Disorders • Pulmonary Embolism • Obstruction of a pulmonary artery by a blood clot • Symptoms – dyspnea, chest pain, tachycardia, cough, fever. Over 50% obstruction can cause rapid death • Treatment – medication to break up clot, oxygen

  41. Diseases and Disorders • Tuberculosis (TB) • Highly contagious infection within the lungs • Symptoms – fatigue, weakness, lack of appetite, weight loss, night sweats, fever, coughing blood, chest pain • Treatment – Isolation, bed rest, adequate diet, medication specifically for TB. Often continued for 6 months.

  42. Diseases and Disorders • Upper Respiratory Infection (URI) • Used to refer to symptoms associated with common cold • Symptoms – sore throat, nasal congestion, headache, fever, cough • Treatment – No cure – aspirin, fluids, rest

  43. Lungsusa.org • Kidshealth.org • http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-body/lungs-article/ • Quiz