Unit 3: Toward Confederation • This unit will focus on the events of the early and mid 1800s, specifically in Canada. • The events discussed in this unit will demonstrate the impact of political empowerment in Canada at this time. • Read pages 74-75 for further background. • Look over the timeline, are any of these events familiar to you?
Political Empowerment explores the role that political structures can play in empowering or disempowering individiauls, groups, regions, and even nations. • In the ffty years leading to Cofederation in Canada, many events and decisions marked a period of struggle for political empowerment.
Chapter 5: Life in British North America • Canada was once under the control of the government of Great Britain and it was then called British North America (BNA). • The government of Great Britain had all of the power and some individuals in BNA were not happy with this. • Soon, different opinions and ideas led to change in BNA and Confederation in 1867 soon followed.
CANADA THEN Canada Now
Vocabulary • British North America • Colony • Immigrant • Majority vs. Minority • Rural vs. Urban • Census
Politics, Population, and Economics • All important decisions about the colonies were made by the gov’t of Great Britain. • According to the Royal Proclamationof 1763, no First Nations land was to be taken over before agreement was met. • Rupert’s Land, the North-Western Territory, and New Caledonia were controlled by the Hudson’s Bay Company without any prior discussion. • The French Shore was part of a treaty between France and Britain that permitted fishers from France to live and fish there. • The Province of Canada was made up of Canada East (mostly French heritage) and Canada West (mostly British heritage).
Politics, Population, and Economics • In 1850, the population of BNA was 2,536,000. • In Canada today, the population is 35,295,770. • Most of the population was in the eastern colonies. • Largest city was Montreal (58,000). • Largest maritime city was Saint John, NB (30,000) • Within the colonies, Europeans were in the majority, within HBC lands and Vancouver’s Island, First Nations and Inuit were in the majority. • By the mid-1800s, the population was about 85% rural and 15% urban.
Politics, Population, and Economics • The economy of BNA was mostly controlled by European settlers. • The settlers had created a Pre-Industrial economy based on natural resources (fur, fish, timber, and farmland). • First Nations and Inuit communities in the Atlantic region sruggled to survive the economic effects of European settlement. • Consider Capitalism and Socialism. • In the lands under control of the HBC, Aboriginal people participated in the fur trade, but they also carried on their traditional economies.
Recreate the chart on the following slide. We will work together to complete the chart as we continue with the chapter. • Fill in any information you can once you have drawn the chart in your binder.
Partner Assignment! • We will be using this period to begin a small assignment in the computer lab. • This period will be used as a research period only. • In a group of TWO, you will research the Acadian Heritage of the Maritime Provinces. The website I would like you to use is: http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/Exhibitions/Acadie/ • Gather information from each section of the Virtual Museum. This information will be used to create a brochure of information about the Acadian Heritage. • Read pages 84-85 for background.
Information to Gather • History of Acadians • Where did they come from • Where were they living • Numbers and statistics • Information about Daily Life • What were some daily tasks • What did an Acadian Family household look like • What was required of individuals living then? • Work and School • Interesting Facts
A Closer Look, Pages 79-81 • What sorts of job opportunities were there in BNA in the mid-1800s? • What social trends would have existed at this time? (ex. Family size, education, hobbies, etc.) • What roles would family members play in households? • What would home life be like? • Historical Narrative Assignment/Skit
History of PEI • Cradled on the waves, this beautiful Island was successively named Abegweit, Île Saint-Jean, and Prince Edward Island to denote Mi'kmaq, French and English regimes. • Although inhabited by the Mi’kmaq people, the Island – as it is often referred to – was first discovered by Europeans when the French voyager Jacques Cartier explored what would become the Maritime Provinces in the 1530s. The original French settlers were the Acadians and called the Island Île Saint-Jean. • After a series of wars between the French and English in Europe and North America Île Saint-Jean was ceded to Great Britain in 1763 by the Treaty of Paris and renamed to St. John’s Island. • The present name of Prince Edward Island was adopted in 1799 to honour then Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn – the father of Queen Victoria and younger brother of King George IV. Edward was born on November 2, 1767 at Buckingham Palace in London to King George III, who was best known for losing the Thirteen American colonies during the American Revolution of 1776 and for a tenuous grip on sanity in his later life. • The title of Duke of Kent dates back to the eleventh century when it was first used by William I in the form of “Earl of Kent” and has been used intermittently since. The modern usage began at the start of the 20th century when the title of “Duke of Kent” was revived for one of the sons of George V, and is currently held by Queen Elizabeth’s cousin, Prince Edward. • Surprisingly, after having played such a large role in the formation of Canada at the Charlottetown Conference in 1864, Prince Edward Island did not join Confederation until 1873 because it considered the original terms of 1867 unfavourable. The Hon. James C. Pope was the first Premier of the new province.
The Peoples of BNA • Immigrant: a person who comes to live in a country that is not his or her original home. • By the mid-1800s, approximately 2/3 of the European population was of British or Irish heritage. • Elite: more political, economic, and social power than the majority. Made up of families of British heritage and often descendants of the Loyalists. Had the most say in the government, owned the largest businesses, set the social standards. • Newer Immigrants: approx. 800 000 english, Scottish, and Irish moved to BNA to escape poverty in their homelands. The English and Scottish fit in easily with the colonies and with hard work they advanced in society. Not so for the Irish – faced prejudices and discrimination. (Page 83)
The Peoples of BNA People of French Heritage • French in Canada East • Some elites but mainly habitants (farmers in rural areas). • When Great Britain took over the French colonies, the French were given speical rights so they wouldn’t rebel. • As time went by, French worried about becoming a minority and losing their rights and heritage. • Acadians • Acadia: the first permanent French settlement in North America. It included PEI, NS, and BN. Acadians are the descendants of these settlers. • After wars between British and France, the British made the Acadians leave the area because they didn’t trust them to stay loyal (Grand Derangement of 1755/The Expulsion). • Some Acadians returned to BNA in later years but had to start over.
The Peoples of BNA Aboriginal Peoples • By the mid-1800s, the colonial leaders began seeing Aboiginalpeopls as being under the control of the British gov’t. • Many settlers and members of the gov’t had racist ideas about First Nations, Metis, and Inuit. • The Aboriginal people suffered discrimination in many situations which led to loss of land for their people and a dramatic drop in population.
http://www.canadiana.ca/citm/themes/aboriginals/aboriginals2_e.htmlhttp://www.canadiana.ca/citm/themes/aboriginals/aboriginals2_e.html • Before the discovery of North America by European explorers, Aboriginal peoples had an entire continent to themselves. They each had their own cultures and traditions, which ranged from nomadic lifestyles, such as the plains peoples who followed the buffalo, to settled farmers such as the Iroquois. The arrival of the white man would eventually change everything, and fundamentally affect the Aboriginal people's relationship with the land and its resources. • Aboriginals did not have centralized, formal governments in the European sense. Aboriginal societies were largely governed by unwritten customs and codes of conduct.
Discrimination and Dispute • Aboriginal nations would use oral treaties to settle land disputes and end other conflicts, including war. Trade and marriage arrangements were commonly made between tribes as well. • When the Europeans arrived, they brought with them their own methods, especially the written treaty. Particularly after the conquest, when the British gradually began to establish a strong hold on the continent, Aboriginals were not always happy with the outcomes of these written treaties - for governments of the time sometimes did not include oral promises made to the Aboriginals in the written treaty. This forms the basis of many land claims today, as Aboriginal leaders demand to be given what they were promised.
Aboriginal skills and knowledge about the harsh landscape helped many Europeans survive cold Canadian winters. These Aboriginals provided access to land to furs for trading, as well as food supplies from fishing and big game hunting.
Assignment • You can work on this assignment with a partner or independently. • You will be given 1 of 6 options to research. You will have one period in the computer lab to gather information and you can also use your book as a resource. • Once you have gathered your information, you will create either an informative poster or a brochure. • Finally, you will present your completed assignment to the class.
To Begin • Read over the section that covers the group of people you will be reading. • Work with your partner to plan the sections of your brochure or poster. • Jot down at least 5 questions that you think would be important to cover in your research. • Hint: Consider the “Who, What, When, Where, and Why” as a starting point.