chapter 3 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 3 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 3

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 42

Chapter 3 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 52 Views
  • Uploaded on

www.nicholls.edu/biol-qcf. Chapter 3. Biology Sixth Edition Raven/Johnson (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Chemistry of Carbon. Organic molecules contain C and H. Because carbon only has 4 electrons in its outer shell, it can attach to four separate molecules.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 3' - tasha-slater


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 3

www.nicholls.edu/biol-qcf

Chapter 3

Biology

Sixth Edition

Raven/Johnson

(c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

the chemistry of carbon
The Chemistry of Carbon

Organic molecules contain C and H

Because carbon only has 4 electrons in its outer shell, it can attach to four separate molecules

Organic molecules consisting of only C and H are called hydrocarbons.

slide3

Hydrocarbon chains can have functional groups that cause the macromolecule to behave in a certain way.

Carboxyl Group: -COOH  -COO¯ + H+

making and breaking macromolecules
Making and Breaking Macromolecules
  • Macromolecules (polymers) are formed from smaller building blocks called monomers.
  • Macromolecules are formed by dehydration synthesis (requires energy)
  • Macromolecule bonds are broken by hydrolysis (releases energy in bonds)
slide6

Energy must be used to build macromolecules.

Energy is released when macromolecules are split.

four types of organic macromolecules
Four Types of Organic Macromolecules
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids
  • Lipids
  • Carbohydrates
protein types and function
Enzyme Catalyst

Facilitate chemical reactions

Defense

Body’s hormone and immune system

Transport

Specific small molecules and ions

Support

Structural roles

Motion

Aid in muscle movement

Regulation

Intercellular messengers

Protein Types and Function
protein building blocks
Protein Building Blocks
  • Proteins are made of linked amino acids
  • Only 20 amino acids available
  • Sequence of amino acids are unique for each protein
slide10

COOH

C

H

R

NH2

Structure of Amino Acids

(Acidic

Group)

(Hydrogen

Group)

(R or Functional

Group)

(Amino

Group)

five groups of amino acids
Five Groups of Amino Acids
  • Nonpolar
  • Polar
  • Aromatic
  • Ionizable
  • Special Structural Property
slide12

Contains –CH2 or –CH3

Contains –O or only H

slide17

Primary Structure - Amino Acid Sequence

Secondary Structure - Folding due to hydrogen bond

Motifs – Characteristic secondary structure (   creates a fold or crease)

slide18

Driven into its tertiary structure by hydrophobic reactions with water, disulfide bonds, and other ionic and covalent bonds

-remember: some amino acids are nonpolar.

subunits

Domain – structurally independent functional unit

Two or more polypeptide chains associate to form a functional protein

protein structure viewed at six levels
Protein Structure Viewed at Six Levels
  • Amino acid sequence (primary structure)
  • Coils and sheets (secondary structure)
  • Folds or creases (motifs)
  • Three-dimensional shape (tertiary structure)
  • Functional units (domains)
  • Individual polypeptide subunits associated in quaternary structure
slide22

Nucleic Acids

  • Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides.
  • Examples include Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA).

All nucleotides have:

1.) nitrogenous base

2.) pentose sugar

-deoxyribose

-ribose

3.) phosphate group

slide23

Fig. 3.14

A chemical difference between DNA and RNA

Fig. 3.15

Nucleotides (monomer) connected by phosphodiester bonds to form nucleic acid (polymer).

slide24

Hydrogen bonds between base pairs gives DNA its characteristic double-helix shape.

slide25

Purines always bond with a pyrimidine, and with DNA it is always:

A-T; G-C

H instead of CH3

Adenine

Guanine

Cytosine

Thymine

Uracil

DNA vs RNA: RNA has Uracil instead of Thymine

slide26

DNA – double stranded, contains thymine, #2 C attached to H

RNA – single stranded, contains uracil, #2 C attached to OH

slide27

Adenosine triphosphate

Nucleotide bases also play an important part in other molecules crucial to life: ATP, NAD, and FAD.

slide28

Lipids- triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids

Lipids serve as long-term energy stores in cells, form membranes, and serve as hormones and insulation.

Lipids contain more energy per gram than any other

biological molecule.

Lipids are nonpolar, thus they do not dissolve in water (hydrophobic).

All lipids are insoluble in water!!

slide29

Structure of Triglycerides

Fatty Acids: long chains of hydrocarbons with an acidic functional group –COOH

Saturated: no double bonds between carbons, “saturated

with hydrogen”, higher melting point than unsaturated

Unsaturated: has one or more double bonds between carbons

saturated

Dehydration or

unsaturated

functional group –COOH

slide30

Solids (butter) at room temperature; fatty acids can align close to each other

Liquids (corn oil) at room temperature; double bonds prevent fatty acids from aligning close to each other

slide31

Non- Polar end

Polar end

Phosphate

Phospholipids consist of:

Glycerol

2 Fatty acids

Phosphate group

slide32

Contains a phosphate group

Cellular membranes

slide33

Terpenes – long chain lipids; components of many biologically important pigments

All steroids characteristically have four carbon rings.

slide34

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates contain C, H, and O and serve as quick energy and short-term energy storage.

Monomers of carbohydrates are the monosaccharides (simple sugars)

slide36

Empirical formula for a 6-C sugar:

C6H12O6

Glucose is metabolized by cellular respiration

slide37

‘double sugars’ – important in sugar transport

Dehydration synthesis – consumes energy

Hydrolysis splits the disaccharides and releases energy

slide38

Same empirical formula (C6H1206)– different arrangement.

Your taste buds can taste the difference!

slide39

Energy storage for plants

Energy storage for animals

slide40

Structural polysaccharide – chief component of plant cell walls

Modified form of cellulose with a nitrogen group added to the glucose units. Structural building material in insects, many fungi, and certain other organisms.