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Human Geography of Canada. CANADIAN HISTORY TIMELINE. British split Canada into 2 provinces: Upper Canada-Protestant English (Ontario) and Lower Canada –Catholic French (Quebec). With control of Rupert’s Land, Canada went from Atlantic to Pacific. France & England claimed parts of Canada.

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    British split Canada into 2 provinces: Upper Canada-Protestant English (Ontario) and Lower Canada –Catholic French (Quebec)

    With control of Rupert’s Land, Canada went from Atlantic to Pacific

    France & England claimed parts of Canada

    Canada independent from Britain

    Leif Erikson discovered Newfoundland











    France surrenders territory to British after French & Indian War

    Canadian transcontinental railway completed

    British No. America Act –Dominion of Canada creating confederation of Ontario, Quebec, & 2 colonies-Nova Scotia & New Brunswick

    Cabot claimed Newfoundland for England

    This is an example text. Go ahead and replace it with your own text. It is meant to give you a feeling of how the designs looks including text.

    quebec conflict
    Quebec Conflict
    • French settlers remained in Canada despite British taking control after winning the French & Indian War
    • French settlers were Roman Catholic and serious ethnic disputes arose between them and the Protestant English settlers
    • British government passed the British No. America Act creating the Dominion of Canada which was a confederation (political union) of Ontario (Upper Canada) & Quebec (Lower Canada)
    • Both British and French people live in Canada
    • In the late 1800s immigrants from other parts of Europe came to live in Canada’s vast open lands
    parliamentary government
    Parliamentary Government
    • System in which legislative and executive functions are combined in a legislature called parliament
    • Central federal government with smaller provincial and territorial governments
    • Parliament: Appointed Senate and elected House of Commons
    • Majority party’s leader in Parliament becomes Prime Minister
    first nations
    First Nations
    • Canada’s Native American peoples
    economic activities in canada
    Economic Activities in Canada
    • Primary Industries: Farming in south central Canada, logging, mining (uranium, zinc, gold, silver), fishing along ocean coastlines, newsprint, oil (along U.S. border)
    • Secondary Activities (Manufacturing Sector): 13% of Canadians have mfg jobs; accounts for 1/8 of the GDP. Automobiles, steel, household appliances, electronics, high-tech equipment, mining equipment. Mfg has small clusters in southwest & south central Canada but is mainly in the southeast near the St. Lawrence seaway.
    economic activities in canada1
    Economic Activities in Canada
    • Tertiary Activities (Service Industries): 70% of GDP; employ more Canadians than all other industries combined
    • Finance, utilities, trade, transportation, tourism, communications, insurance, real estate, trade
    • Service industries are found throughout southern Canada
    canada land of many cultures
    Canada – Land of Many Cultures
    • There were diverse cultures from Canada’s earliest settlement when the Inuit and First Nations peoples came after the last Ice Age
    • Then the English and French arrived, and later immigrants from Europe and Asia
    languages religion
    Languages & Religion
    • Officially Bilingual: English-speaking majority and French-speaking minority
    • First Nation languages still survive
    • Protestant and Roman Catholics are two largest religions with smaller groups of Muslims, Jews, and others
    • Settlement affected by the harsh physical environment and lack of transportation routes
    • Port cities of Montreal, Toronto, & Vancouver are most densely settled
    • 80% of Canadians live on 10% of the land along a 100-mile wide strip just north of the U.S. border
    • Becoming more urban: 4/5 of people live in cities
    • 75% of French Canadians live in Quebec; Inuit people live in northern territories
    sports and recreation
    Sports and Recreation
    • Skating, ice hockey, fishing, skiing, golf, hunting
    • Canadian football league & professional ice hockey teams are popular
    • Lacrosse was developed by native peoples of Canada
    • Early European settlers in Canada developed ice hockey
    the arts
    The Arts
    • Oral traditions of the First Nations
    • Realistic carvings of the Inuit made from ivory, whalebone, and soapstone
    • Totem poles of First Nations on the West Coast
    • Toronto-based artists called Group of Seven
    • Stratford Festival in Ontario honoring Shakespeare
    canadian subregions
    Canadian Subregions
    • Four subregions: Atlantic Provinces, Core Provinces, Prairie Provinces, Pacific Province and Territories
    • 10 total provinces and 3 territories
    • Each has a unique population, economy, and resources
    • Take out your Canada map and color the four subregions found on page 154 of the textbook. Also briefly outline the subregions on the map on page 12 of the Study Guide.
    atlantic provinces
    Atlantic Provinces
    • Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Labrador
    • 8% of Canada’s population and most of these live in coastal cities
    • Rugged terrain and severe weather
    • Logging is largest industry due to dense forests
    • Fishing, mining, shipbuilding
    • Hydroelectric power resources
    core provinces
    Core Provinces
    • Quebec and Ontario
    • Heartland of Canada: 3 out of 5 Canadians live here. Ontario largest population, Quebec largest land area. Most people live along Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River
    • Center of political and economic life
    • Ottawa (in Ontario) is capital of federal government
    • 35% of agriculture, 41% of mining, 70% of manufacturing
    • Toronto is banking and financial center
    • Montreal is Canada’s 2nd largest city & center of life in Quebec
    prairie provinces
    Prairie Provinces
    • Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta
    • Part of North America’s Great Plains – center of agriculture (50% of agriculture in Canada)
    • Many minerals also; large coal, oil & natural gas deposits in Alberta
    • Manitoba: Scots-Irish, Germans, Scandinavians, Ukrainians, Poles
    • Saskatchewan: Asia and the metis people
    • Alberta: Europeans, Indian, Japanese, Lebanese, Vietnamese
    pacific province
    Pacific Province
    • British Columbia
    • Westernmost province, almost all in Rocky Mountain range
    • ¾ is 3000 feet above sea level; ½ dense forests; 1/3 frozen tundra, snowfields, glaciers
    • Victoria and Vancouver are largest cities in SW
    • Logging, mining, hydroelectric power, largest port in Canada so lots of shipping
    northern territories
    Northern Territories
    • Yukon, Northwest, and Nunavut Territories
    • 41% of the land mass of Canada, sparsely populated
    • Yukon: North of British Columbia; 35,000 people
    • Northwest Territories: East of Yukon, extends to the Arctic; population 43,000
    • Nunavut: Formed from eastern Northwest Territories in 1999; home to many Inuit people
    • Mining, fishing, logging – widely scattered
    nunavut inuit metis
    Nunavut, Inuit, Metis
    • Nunavut was formed in 1999 to settle the land claims of the Inuit (formerly called Eskimo) peoples and give them an official home
    • Nunavut means “our land”
    • Metis are people of mixed French and native heritage