Human Geography of Canada. CANADIAN HISTORY TIMELINE. British split Canada into 2 provinces: Upper Canada-Protestant English (Ontario) and Lower Canada –Catholic French (Quebec). With control of Rupert’s Land, Canada went from Atlantic to Pacific. France & England claimed parts of Canada.
CANADIAN HISTORY TIMELINE British split Canada into 2 provinces: Upper Canada-Protestant English (Ontario) and Lower Canada –Catholic French (Quebec) With control of Rupert’s Land, Canada went from Atlantic to Pacific France & England claimed parts of Canada Canada independent from Britain Leif Erikson discovered Newfoundland 1000 1497 16th-17th Centuries 1763 1791 1867 1871 1885 1931 France surrenders territory to British after French & Indian War Canadian transcontinental railway completed British No. America Act –Dominion of Canada creating confederation of Ontario, Quebec, & 2 colonies-Nova Scotia & New Brunswick Cabot claimed Newfoundland for England This is an example text. Go ahead and replace it with your own text. It is meant to give you a feeling of how the designs looks including text.
Quebec Conflict French settlers remained in Canada despite British taking control after winning the French & Indian War French settlers were Roman Catholic and serious ethnic disputes arose between them and the Protestant English settlers British government passed the British No. America Act creating the Dominion of Canada which was a confederation (political union) of Ontario (Upper Canada) & Quebec (Lower Canada)
Multicultural Both British and French people live in Canada In the late 1800s immigrants from other parts of Europe came to live in Canada’s vast open lands
Parliamentary Government System in which legislative and executive functions are combined in a legislature called parliament Central federal government with smaller provincial and territorial governments Parliament: Appointed Senate and elected House of Commons Majority party’s leader in Parliament becomes Prime Minister
First Nations Canada’s Native American peoples
Economic Activities in Canada Primary Industries: Farming in south central Canada, logging, mining (uranium, zinc, gold, silver), fishing along ocean coastlines, newsprint, oil (along U.S. border) Secondary Activities (Manufacturing Sector): 13% of Canadians have mfg jobs; accounts for 1/8 of the GDP. Automobiles, steel, household appliances, electronics, high-tech equipment, mining equipment. Mfg has small clusters in southwest & south central Canada but is mainly in the southeast near the St. Lawrence seaway.
Economic Activities in Canada Tertiary Activities (Service Industries): 70% of GDP; employ more Canadians than all other industries combined Finance, utilities, trade, transportation, tourism, communications, insurance, real estate, trade Service industries are found throughout southern Canada
Canada – Land of Many Cultures There were diverse cultures from Canada’s earliest settlement when the Inuit and First Nations peoples came after the last Ice Age Then the English and French arrived, and later immigrants from Europe and Asia
Languages & Religion Officially Bilingual: English-speaking majority and French-speaking minority First Nation languages still survive Protestant and Roman Catholics are two largest religions with smaller groups of Muslims, Jews, and others
Population Settlement affected by the harsh physical environment and lack of transportation routes Port cities of Montreal, Toronto, & Vancouver are most densely settled 80% of Canadians live on 10% of the land along a 100-mile wide strip just north of the U.S. border Becoming more urban: 4/5 of people live in cities 75% of French Canadians live in Quebec; Inuit people live in northern territories
Sports and Recreation Skating, ice hockey, fishing, skiing, golf, hunting Canadian football league & professional ice hockey teams are popular Lacrosse was developed by native peoples of Canada Early European settlers in Canada developed ice hockey
The Arts Oral traditions of the First Nations Realistic carvings of the Inuit made from ivory, whalebone, and soapstone Totem poles of First Nations on the West Coast Toronto-based artists called Group of Seven Stratford Festival in Ontario honoring Shakespeare
Canadian Subregions Four subregions: Atlantic Provinces, Core Provinces, Prairie Provinces, Pacific Province and Territories 10 total provinces and 3 territories Each has a unique population, economy, and resources Take out your Canada map and color the four subregions found on page 154 of the textbook. Also briefly outline the subregions on the map on page 12 of the Study Guide.
Atlantic Provinces Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Labrador 8% of Canada’s population and most of these live in coastal cities Rugged terrain and severe weather Logging is largest industry due to dense forests Fishing, mining, shipbuilding Hydroelectric power resources
Core Provinces Quebec and Ontario Heartland of Canada: 3 out of 5 Canadians live here. Ontario largest population, Quebec largest land area. Most people live along Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Center of political and economic life Ottawa (in Ontario) is capital of federal government 35% of agriculture, 41% of mining, 70% of manufacturing Toronto is banking and financial center Montreal is Canada’s 2nd largest city & center of life in Quebec
Prairie Provinces Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta Part of North America’s Great Plains – center of agriculture (50% of agriculture in Canada) Many minerals also; large coal, oil & natural gas deposits in Alberta Manitoba: Scots-Irish, Germans, Scandinavians, Ukrainians, Poles Saskatchewan: Asia and the metis people Alberta: Europeans, Indian, Japanese, Lebanese, Vietnamese
Pacific Province British Columbia Westernmost province, almost all in Rocky Mountain range ¾ is 3000 feet above sea level; ½ dense forests; 1/3 frozen tundra, snowfields, glaciers Victoria and Vancouver are largest cities in SW Logging, mining, hydroelectric power, largest port in Canada so lots of shipping
Northern Territories Yukon, Northwest, and Nunavut Territories 41% of the land mass of Canada, sparsely populated Yukon: North of British Columbia; 35,000 people Northwest Territories: East of Yukon, extends to the Arctic; population 43,000 Nunavut: Formed from eastern Northwest Territories in 1999; home to many Inuit people Mining, fishing, logging – widely scattered
Nunavut, Inuit, Metis Nunavut was formed in 1999 to settle the land claims of the Inuit (formerly called Eskimo) peoples and give them an official home Nunavut means “our land” Metis are people of mixed French and native heritage