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Effective Tables and Charts. Important Elements of Graphic Presentation of Data Rena Cheskis-Gold. Part I. Charting Data. Basic Table. Bar Charts. Quickly compare one category to another. Pie Charts. Less flexible than bar charts. Must include all categories and add to 100\% .

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effective tables and charts

Effective Tables and Charts

Important Elements of Graphic Presentation

of Data

Rena Cheskis-Gold

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

part i charting data

Part I. Charting Data

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

basic table
Basic Table

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

bar charts
Bar Charts
  • Quickly compare one category to another.

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

pie charts
Pie Charts
  • Less flexible than bar charts.
  • Must include all categories and add to 100%.

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

when there is a second layer of information you must use a bar chart
When there is a second layer of information, you must use a bar chart.

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

bar charts are useful for more complex comparisons
Bar charts are useful for more complex comparisons.

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

comparing distributions males to females
Comparing Distributions:Males to Females

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

comparing divisions
Comparing Divisions

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

time plots
Time Plots

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

cumulative time plot
Cumulative Time Plot

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

box plots
Box Plots
  • To Summarize Large Amounts of Information

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

part ii statistical thinking

Part II. Statistical Thinking

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

when to chart or not
When to chart or not?

1. Enough variation to chart?

2. Makes sense to chart?

3. Interesting enough to chart?

4. Precise enough to chart?

5. Enough information to draw a conclusion?

6. Is a chart the best way?

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

is there enough variation to warrant a chart
Is there enough variation to warrant a chart?

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

will the comparison make sense if charted
Will the comparison make sense if charted?

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

are the data interesting enough to chart
Are the data interesting enough to chart?

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

are the data precise enough to chart
Are the data precise enough to chart?

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

is a chart the best way to display these data
Is a chart the best way to display these data?

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

part iii effective presentation of data

Part III.Effective Presentation of Data

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

importance of an effective data presentation
Importance of an Effective Data Presentation
  • The desired effect is not ‘data,’ but ‘information.’
  • A good appearance will not disguise bad data, but a bad appearance may minimize your good efforts.

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

why do we need to understand graphic design
Why Do We Need to Understand Graphic Design?
  • To have the correct vocabulary to communicate with design professionals
  • To work efficiently and produce better quality documents
  • Good design is “intelligence made visible”

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

project background questions
Project Background Questions
  • What are the expectations of the audience? What is their level of sophistication?
  • How will the document be used?
  • What are the available resources and timetable?
  • How and where will the document be printed, and are there cost limitations?

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

basic graphic design elements
Basic Graphic Design Elements
  • Unity
  • Variety
  • Design a Page Grid
  • Group Related Items
  • Establish Clear Alignments
  • Repeat Visual Elements
  • Utilize Strong Contrasts
  • Choose Appropriate Fonts

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

style considerations
Size

Reproduction

Lines

Level of Precision

Over-label

Choosing Your Style

Abbreviations

Style Considerations

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

slide26
“Although we often hear that data speak for themselves, their voices can be soft and sly.”

Mosteller, F. Beginning Statistics with Data Analysis. 1983.

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

conceptual errors in presenting data anna waggener u s army war college
Conceptual Errors in Presenting DataAnna Waggener, U.S. Army War College
  • Using ‘chart junk’
  • No relative basis

in comparing data

batches

  • Compressing the

Vertical axis

  • No zero point on the

vertical axis

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

chart junk and lie factor
‘Chart Junk’ and Lie Factor

Good Presentation

Bad Presentation

Minimum Wage

Minimum Wage

$

1960: $1.00

4

1970: $1.60

2

1980: $3.10

0

1960

1970

1980

1990

1990: $3.80

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

Source: Anna Waggener

no relative basis
No Relative Basis

Bad Presentation

Good Presentation

A’s received by students.

A’s received by students.

Freq.

%

30%

300

200





10%

0



FR

SO

JR

SR

FR

SO

JR

SR

Source: Anna Waggener

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

no zero point on vertical axis
No Zero Point on Vertical Axis

Bad Presentation

Good Presentation

Monthly Expenses

Monthly Expenses

$

$

45

60

42

40

39

20

36

0

J

F

M

M

J

J

F

M

A

M

J

A

Graphing the first six months of sales.

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

Source: Anna Waggener

more errors in presenting data
More Errors in Presenting Data
  • Inappropriate use of depth
  • Poor labeling
  • Too small or too crowded
  • Bad translation from color to black and white
  • Not enough information

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

especially annoying errors in presenting data
Especially Annoying Errors in Presenting Data
  • Usage of abbreviations, especially computer variables
  • Superfluous ‘tick’ marks
  • Vibration
  • Unnecessary precision
  • Data hiding in text form

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

using fonts in presentations
Using Fonts in Presentations
  • Pick the right font for the message.
  • Serif fonts (Times New Roman) vs. Sans Serif fonts (Arial).
  • Use bold, italics, and color carefully.
  • Consistency is important.

Source: Microsoft Powerpoint.

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

typical powerpoint default chart
Typical Powerpoint Default Chart

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

for help or information contact rena cheskis gold 203 397 1612 rena@dem perspectives com
For help or information, contact

Rena Cheskis-Gold, (203) 397-1612

[email protected]

© 2004 Demographic Perspectives wwww.dem-perspectives.com

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