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Fundamentals of Graphic Aids: Charts and Tables. Objectives. Explain the value of graphs in reports Describe the criteria for quality graphs Describe the potential for misleading data Choose the correct graph for different data sets Construct bar graphs, pie charts, and line graphs .

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Presentation Transcript
objectives
Objectives
  • Explain the value of graphs in reports
  • Describe the criteria for quality graphs
  • Describe the potential for misleading data
  • Choose the correct graph for different data sets
  • Construct bar graphs, pie charts, and line graphs
why use charts
Why use charts?
  • To help clarify complex data
  • To supplement text (not substitute text)
  • To help the reader focus on the data
  • To simplify the reader’s comprehension
slide5

To clarify, supplement, focus, simplify

Better ?

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

slide6

To clarify, supplement, focus, simplify

BEST !

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

criteria for quality graphs
Criteria for Quality Graphs

1.Shows the data

2. Helps the reader focus on the data rather than on the graph itself

3. Avoids misleading the reader or distorting the data

4. Simplifies the reader’s comprehension of the data

5. Is consistent with the verbal or numeric description of the data.

two different graphs presenting the same information
Two Different Graphs Presenting the Same Information

XYZ Company Safety Violations,

1986-1989

XYZ Company Safety Violations,

1986-1989

500

450

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

1986 1987 1988 1989

1986 1987 1988 1989

two different graphs presenting the same information10

$515

$510

almost unnoticeable scale break

$505

$500

0

Oct Nov Dec

Two Different Graphs Presenting the Same Information

XYZ Company Sales

$600

XYZ Company Sales

$500

$400

$300

$200

$100

0

Oct Nov Dec

slide11

XYZ Company Cost of Operations, 1999-2000

You be the judge.

Other

Training & Development

5%

Material & Capital Development

50%

10%

35%

Salaries

simple vertical column chart
Simple Vertical Column Chart

Used to show changes in quantities over time.

simple horizontal bar chart
Simple Horizontal Bar Chart

Used to changes in quantities by category.

Western Cable TV

Radio Station WROZ-FM

Radio Station WKDM-AM

0 2 4 6 8 10

Net Income (millions of dollars)

slide15

Expenditures for Real Estate Advertising in Selected Colorado Counties, 1998

Arapahoe County

SCALE BREAK

$55

Denver County

$3.2 million

El Paso County

$75

0 20 40 60 80 100

Thousands of dollars

multiple column chart
Multiple Column Chart

Used to show changes in several different quantities over time.

1999 2000 2001

stacked segmented or subdivided chart
Stacked (segmented or subdivided) Chart

Used to compare subdivisions of quantities (horizontal or vertical).

bilateral column chart

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Used to show positive and negative values over time.

Bilateral Column Chart
choose the correct column or bar chart
Choose the Correct Column or Bar Chart

Situation 1:

Radkur, Inc. net profit for 8 years

1993 +15.2 million

1994 + 9.0 million

1995 - 3.1 million

1996 - 12.5 million

1997 + 5.3 million

1998 +10.8 million

1999 +12.1 million

2000 + 9.9 million

choose the correct column or bar chart20
Choose the Correct Column or Bar Chart

Situation 2:

Provide the correct graph to depict projected annual sales for XYZ Company for the next 5 years:

Year Projected Sales Revenue

1 10.2 million

2 11.1 million

3 11.9 million

4 12.5million

5 13.5 million

choose the correct column or bar chart21
Choose the Correct Column or Bar Chart

Situation 3:

Provide the correct graph to depict projected income of three divisions for XYZ Company for the next 3 years as follows (in millions):

Year Division A Division B Division C

1 15.2 5.1 12.7

2 22.4 8.6 14.5

3 26.7 9.5 15.8

pie charts
Pie Charts

Used to show subdivisions of a whole.

line charts
Line Charts

Used to show changes in information over time.

format for presenting figures in the report

The label and title are typed flush with the left margin on the same line below the figure.

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Place the source data directly below the title.

Format for presenting figures in the report

Figure 1. Radkur, Inc. Net Profit, 1994-2001

Source: Primary

tables
Tables

The formal table presentation includes the following parts:

  • General introduction in the text (including a phrase such as “…as shown in Table 1”)
  • Label (“Table”) and number
  • Title
  • Table containing data
  • Source information
  • Specific discussion in the text that points out important points in the table
slide26

The label and title are typed flush with the left margin on separate lines above the table.

Use borders and line divisions.

Center numbers in columns but align right.

Place the source data below the table.