Biome • A biome is a major, geographically extensive ecosystem, structurally characterized by its dominant life forms • Most of the oceans are considered part of a single biome, although areas with particularly unusual or unique physical characteristics or inhabitants may be considered as separate biomes
Marine Biomes • Marine biomes make up the largest percentage of aquatic biomes on Earth. Unlike freshwater biomes, these biomes involve a medium to high percentage of salt in the water
Marine Biomes • are extremely important to how our Earth currently functions. Marine biomes supply much of the world's oxygen through algae plants. They also take in gigantic amounts of carbon dioxide from our atmosphere
Marine biomes • Include: • oceans • coral reefs • and estuaries
Oceans • An ocean (from Greek Okeanos) is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. • Approximately 71% of the Earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers) is covered by ocean
Oceans • The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents: these divisions are (in descending order of size) • the Pacific Ocean • the Atlantic Ocean • the Indian Ocean • the Southern Ocean • the Arctic Ocean
Oceans • Ocean biomes are the largest of all the biomes. Because they cover such a large region, they are divided into zones. • There are four ocean zones: • intertidal, • pelagic, • abyssal, • and benthic
Intertidal zone • The intertidal zone is most commonly know as the tidal zone. This is the area where the ocean meets the shore. This zone changes greatly throughout the day, depending upon the ocean's tides
Pelagic zone • The pelagic zone is more commonly known as the open ocean. It is the farthest area from the shoreline. The temperature of this zone changes frequently due to the constant mixing of cold and warm ocean currents.
Benthic zone • The area below the pelagic zone is called the benthic zone. This area goes all the way to the bottom of the ocean floor. In this zone, as the water gets deeper, the temperature gets cooler and the ocean gets darker
Abyssal zone • The deepest zone is called the abyssal zone. This zone includes mid-ocean ridges. Mid-ocean ridges are the spreading zones between the techtonic plates. Here you would find high oxygen content, little light, high pressure, and large amounts of hydrogen sulfide and other various minerals
How did the oceans form? • Video
Oceans • One of the most dramatic forms of weather occurs over the oceans: tropical cyclones (also called "typhoons" and "hurricanes" depending upon where the system forms). • Ocean currents greatly affect the Earth's climate by transferring warm or cold air and precipitation to coastal regions, where they may be carried inland by winds. • The Antarctic Circumpolar Current encircles that continent, influencing the area's climate and connecting currents in several oceans.
Coral reefs • Coral reefs are usually found in shallow, warm waters. They are found along continents, islands, and atolls. Coral reefs are made of algae and tissues of animal polyp. These areas tend to be poor in nutrients, however the coral gets its nutrients from the algae
Importance of coral reefs • Coral are very important in controlling how much carbon dioxide is in the ocean water. Without coral, the amount of carbon dioxide in the water would rise dramatically and that would affect all living things on Earth. • In addition, coral reefs are very important because they protect coasts from strong currents and waves by slowing down the water before it gets to the shore. That is why they are called barrier reefs. They provide a barrier between the ocean and the shore.
Importance of coral reefs • Coral Reefs are the “Rainforests” of the ocean. Reefs are ecologically important ecosystems and have a high biodiversity that serves as a storage bank of rich genetic resources
Estuaries • This biome is unique because it involves both freshwater and salt water. In this area streams or rivers connect to the ocean. Species that live in this biome have to be able to survive in both types of water
Estuaries • The sheltered waters of estuaries are home to countless plants and animals that like to live in water that is part fresh and part salty. Examples include horseshoe crabs, ospreys, manatees, mangroves, and sea grasses. • Hundreds of fish and shellfish, such as scallops, shrimp, and salmon, live in estuaries at some point in their life. Estuaries protect water quality by filtering out dirt and pollution. • In addition, estuaries and the land surrounding them are places where people live, sail, fish, swim, and bird watch. As a result, estuaries are often the centers of our coastal communities
Fresh Water Biomes • Lakes, streams, wetlands • Lakes- mass of water surrounded by land and fed by sources of water such as rivers, stream, and precipitation
Notes • Biome : Large ecosystem with dominant life forms • Marine biomes make up the largest percentage of aquatic biomes on Earth (medium/high levels of salt) • Marine biomes include oceans, coral reefs and estuaries • Approximately 71% of the Earth's surface is covered by ocean
Notes • The world ocean is seen to be divided into five sub oceans: Pacific ocean, Atlantic ocean, Indian ocean, Arctic ocean and Southern ocean • Ocean biomes are divided into four zones: intertidal, pelagic, benthic and abyssal • Intertidal: Where ocean meets shore • Pelagic: Mixing of cold and warm ocean currents • Benthic: Bottom of the ocean floor (cold temp, dark) • Abyssal: Deepest zone and includes mid-ocean ridges
Notes • Dramatic forms of weather occurs over the oceans(ex: tropical cyclones ) • Ocean currents greatly affect the Earth's climate by transferring warm or cold air and precipitation to coastal regions, where they may be carried inland by winds. • The Antarctic Circumpolar Current encircles that continent, influencing the area's climate and connecting currents in several oceans. • Around half of all carbon dioxide produced by humans since the industrial revolution has dissolved into the world's oceans
Notes • Coral reefs are usually found in shallow, warm waters • Coral are very important in controlling how much carbon dioxide is in the ocean water. • Coral reefs protect coasts from strong currents and waves by slowing down the water before it gets to the shore • Coral reefs have a high biodiversity that serves as a storage bank of rich genetic resources • Estuaries involve both freshwater and salt water. They protect water quality by filtering out dirt and pollution and are often the centers of coastal communities