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English Exploration. Mr. Searcy. England was in no position to challenge Spain through most of the 1500s. Were actually Spain’s allies for most of the century

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the rise of england

England was in no position to challenge Spain through most of the 1500s.

  • Were actually Spain’s allies for most of the century
  • Much of century was plagued by religious in-fighting between Protestants and Catholics after the establishment of the Church of England by Henry VIII in the 1530s. English Protestant Reformation
The Rise of England
queen elizabeth i

The establishment of Queen Elizabeth to the throne in 1558 ended the religious fighting and led to Protestant domination in England. Also led to increased rivalry with Catholic Spain.

  • Only true challenge was from Catholics in Ireland who resented Protestant rule and asked for Spanish help. Help didn’t come and the Irish rebels were crushed by the Queen’s forces. Led to hostility between English soldier and Irish “natives”.
  • Elizabeth began financing and supporting English pirates who attacked Spanish ships and settlements, intent on stealing as much gold as they could.
  • The most famous pirate was Sir Francis Drake. He raided Spanish ships and settlements, netting profits of over 4,600%. The Spanish chased him all over the sea but Elizabeth knighted him for his efforts..
Queen Elizabeth I
early settlement attempts

1583: Sir Humphrey Gilbert attempted a colony on the coast of Newfoundland. Died at sea. Failure.

  • 1585: Sir Walter Raleigh: North Carolina’s Roanoke Island off the coast of Virginia at the time. The Virgin Queen. The settlement mysteriously vanished. Croatoan
Early Settlement Attempts
spanish armada

While England was struggling to establish a foothold in the New World, Spain was thriving.

  • Philip II of Spain created an “Invincible Armada” to invade and conquer Protestant England.
  • 1588: 130 Spanish ships crossed the English Channel for a showdown.
  • The Spanish ships were too large, and were crippled by the smaller, faster moving English ships.
  • The Protestant wind: Devastating storm that scattered the Spanish fleet.
  • Marked the beginning of the end of the Spanish stronghold in the New world. Eventually lost Holland and Caribbean holdings. Overreached their power.
Spanish Armada
england s new power

Victory over the Spanish Armada helped secure England’s dominance in the North Atlantic.

  • England was prime for a conquest of the New World
    • Capital
    • Strong leadership
    • Strong Navy
    • Religious unity
    • Nationalism

Signed a peace treaty with Spain and 1604

England’s new power
problems in england

Unemployment and Loss of land.

    • Enclosing-led to loss of land for poor people

Woolen Economic Depression in 1500s. Hit puritan area hardest. Led to homelessness.

Inheritance of land went to the eldest son.

Led to younger sons seeking opportunity and adventure.

A growing population seeking opportunity and land elsewhere.

Problems in England

1606: Joint stock company called the Virginia Company of London received a charter from King James I of England for a settlement in the New World.

  • Joint stock companies were created to make a quick profit and then dissolve.
  • Sought gold and a passage to the Indies.
  • Holder sought quick profit versus a strong lasting colony.
  • Charter guaranteed settlers the same rights as Englishmen, a staple in future liberties for settlers.

Set sail in 1606. Landed in the Chesapeake Bay where they were attacked by Indians.

  • Settled on the James River. Thick with malaria. Settled in May 24, 1607. Around 100 male settlers
  • Many of the early settlers died of disease, malnutrition, and starvation. Spent too much time looking for gold instead of finding ways to survive. Many settlers were “gentlemen” unaccustomed to living on their own.
  • Captain John Smith kept the group together and started focusing on survival instead of riches. Took over in 1608. “He who shall not work, shall not eat.” He was taken hostage in 1607 by the Indian chief Powhattan, but saved by daughter, Pocahontas. Ritual was a way of showing Native power, but made Pocahontas a strong intermediary between the settlers and the Powhattan tribe.

Starving Time: Winter of 1609-1610. Powhattan’s tribe stopped helping the settlers. Ate dogs, cats, rats, and mice. One man killed and ate his wife, executed. Only 60 of 400 settlers survived the winter.

  • Spring of 1610: settlers were ready to leave. Met at James River by a new governor, Lord De La Warr.
  • Lord De La War established military discipline and took military action against the Indians.
lord de la warr

Was under orders from Jamestown Company to wage war against Powhatan’s tribe and all Indians.

  • Raided Indian villages, burning them to the ground and stealing food supplies. First Anglo-Powhatan War
  • Led to a peace settlement in 1614 and the marriage of Pocahontas to John Rolfe.
  • Indians struck back in 1622 killing 347 settlers. Led to increased warfare and the settlers pushing the Indians even further west.
  • Second Anglo-Powhatan War: 1644. 1646 Peace settlement banished Indians from the homeland and established, initially, the first reservation system.
  • By 1669, only around 2,000 Indians remained in Virginia. Only about 10% of population when settlers came in 1607.
  • Disease, Disorganization, and Disposability led to native demise.
Lord De La Warr
plantation colonies

The Plantation Colonies

    • Virginia
    • Maryland
    • The Carolinas
    • Georgia
Plantation Colonies

Importance of Tobacco

    • John Rolfe: 1616 he perfected methods of raising tobacco.
    • Europe suddenly had a taste for the plant.
    • Led to a tobacco boom in Virginia. Colonists became focused on the one crop and more land. Expansion spread thus crowding the Indians even more.
    • Allowed a prosperous economic system in the New World even though it was harsh on the land and depended on the market price of one crop.
    • New agricultural system also called for more labor.
introduction of slaves

1619: Dutch brought 20 black Africans to Jamestown. Earliest slaves in the colonies.

  • By 1650 only 300 blacks in Virginia
  • By 1700 blacks made up 14% of Virginia population.
Introduction of Slaves
house of burgesses

1619: The London Company authorized the settlers to summon an assembly for government purposes.

  • First parliament to be established in the colonies.
  • 1624: King James I revoked the charter of Virginia making Virginia a royal colony under his direct control. Didn’t trust the settlers.
House of Burgesses

4th English Colony established

  • 1634: Lord Baltimore: From prominent English Catholic Colony
  • Established for wealth and create a refuge for English Catholics.

Baltimore didn’t make the voyage, but set aside huge tracts of land for family members.

  • Wanted to create a feudal domain that was similar to England.
  • Created a system of haves and have nots as Catholics received large proprietorships while the poor protestants were resentful backcountry farmers.
  • Created wealth through tobacco.
  • Much of labor came in the form of indentured servants. Young white men who worked to pay off their passage to the new world in order to gain land and opportunity.
  • Slaves began being brought in the later 17th century
act of toleration

1649: Act of Toleration passed by Lord Baltimore as a way of securing Catholic religion while also tolerating all Christians.

  • Death penalty for those who denied the divinity of Jesus, like Jews and atheists.
Act of Toleration
west indies

England laid claim to the island in the mid 1600s.

  • Became center of sugar production. Labor intensive process that required slave labor. Large plantations were created. By 1700 blacks made up around ¾ of the population.
  • Barbados slave code of 1661 gave owners complete power over slaves. Allowed them to punish slaves in severe manners.
  • Some white settlers of the Indies settled in the Carolinas, bring with them sugar agriculture and black slaves.
West Indies
the carolinas

Created by King Charles II. Gave land to the Lords Proprietors, eight of his court favorites. 1670

  • Established colony to provide food for the West Indies.
  • Strong ties to the West Indies. Established a profitable slave trade in the colony. Used both Indians and Africans. Many of these Indians were sent to the Indies for labor.Savannah Indians helped the whites, but the settlers killed much of the tribe when they decided to move to Pennsylvania where the Quakers were creating a society of toleration.
  • Rice cultivation started in the 1700s as African slaves trained in the cultivation were brought to the Carolinas.
  • Charleston became the economic and cultural center.
The Carolinas
north carolina

Inhabited by poor Virginians and religious outcasts.

  • Created small tobacco farms without the need for slave labor.
  • Separated from South Carolina in 1712. Looked down upon by it’s snobbish neighbors in S.C. and Va.
  • Fought the Tuscarora tribe, push them north into the Iroquois Confederation. Faced a stiff challenge from the Cherokee in the west.
North Carolina

Founded in 1733. Last of the colonies to be created.

  • Had served as a buffer state from Spanish in Florida and French in Louisiana.
  • Name after King George II.
  • Place for imprisoned debtors in England.
  • James Oglethorpe led push. Called for prison reform after seeing his friend die in debtors prison. Strong military leader and rich.
  • Savannah was center of culture and economy.
  • Religious toleration: Many missionaries came to convert Indians. Catholics were not tolerated.
  • John Wesley was early missionary. Returned to England to start Methodist Church