Download
conquest and colonies n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Exploration PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Exploration

Exploration

141 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Exploration

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Conquest and Colonies Exploration

  2. Spirit of discover and innovation b/c of Renaissance Money Get rid of middle man (Italian merchants) Faster routes to Asia Prestige Christianize Curiosity Reasons for exploration

  3. New technologies • Compass • Astrolabe • Mapmaking • Cartographer • Shipbuilding • Deep-draft ships • Caravel

  4. Portugal • The first • Henry the Navigator • Court of sailors • Explored African coast • Goal= route from Africa to India • Bartolomeu Dias • Cape of Good Hope • Vasco Da Gama • Reached Calicut, India

  5. spain • Christopher Columbus • Sail west to China • Reached the Caribbean • Amerigo Vespucci • Ferdinand Magellan • Circumnavigate

  6. Exploration continues • England • John Cabot- Canada • Sir Francis Drake-Western U.S. • France • Jacques Cartier- St Lawrence River • Dutch • Henry Hudson- Northwest passage

  7. Spain’s Empire • Settled colonies in America • Conquered the Aztecs and Incas

  8. First region settled by the Spanish • Hispaniola and Cuba • Encomienda system • Colonists given land and NA to work land • Colonists then had to teach NA about Christianity • NA overworked and mistreated • Europeans brought diseases • Smallpox, tuberculosis, measles, etc. • NA had no resistance to diseases The Caribbean

  9. Hernan Cortes, a conquistador • Aztec emperor= Moctezuma II • Aztecs • Rich and powerful • Not popular among those they conquered • Capital= Tenochtitlan • Cortes and unhappy NA soldiers conquered Aztec Empire Cortes vs. Moctezuma

  10. How Did Cortes Do It? • Malinche- translator to Cortes • Metal weapons and heavy armor • Horses- NA had never seen horses before • Disease

  11. Wanted wealth from Inca Empire Inca Empire weakened by disease and new ruler Pizarro asked Atahualpa to convert to Christianity and give empire to Spain Atahaulpa refused and was killed Pizarro then easily took over the empire Pizarro and Peru

  12. Viceroys- officials to rule in king’s name • Mined gold and silver • NA population dropped more than 90% • Bartolome de Las Casas- didn’t like treatment of NA • Replace NA slaves with African slaves Governing the Americas

  13. Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)- imaginary line through Atlantic • West of line belonged to Spain • East of line belonged to Portugal • Brazil= lots of jungles • Made farming difficult • Portuguese slow to settle the region Portugal and Brazil

  14. French settled in New France, aka Canada • Lots of fish in North Atlantic • Fox, lynx, otter, and other furs= hot commodities in Europe • French merely sent small groups of traders • Didn’t enslave NA- intermingled • French also explored south of Canada • Mississippi River • Louisiana New France

  15. Looking for trade opportunities New Netherland- Hudson River Valley New Amsterdam- New York City Dutch colonies in America remained relatively small Dutch focused on developing colonies in other parts of the world Dutch Exploration

  16. British Expansion • Jamestown- first English colony • Pilgrims came too in 1620 • Plymouth, Massachusetts • English colonists didn’t get along with NA

  17. French and Indian War • British started settling on French territory • British did poorly at first • French eventually lost • Surrendered Canada and territory east of the Mississippi

  18. Exchanging of plants, animals, and disease America- potatoes, corn, sweet potatoes, or turkeys Europe- coffee, oranges, rice, wheat, sheep, or cattle New foods- healthier Europeans- lived longer Diseases once again killed millions Columbian Exchange

  19. Nation’s wealth= nation’s strength/power • Wealth measured by amount of gold and silver • 2 ways to get wealth • Mining and favorable balance of trade • Emphasis on establishment of colonies • Raw materials and new markets • Put restrictions on colonies Mercantilism

  20. Economy run by private individuals and companies • Investors willing to take risks • Joint-stock companies • Buying shares of stock in a company • British East India Company Capitalism

  21. Shortage of laborers led to slave trade • NA killed by diseases and wars • Indentured servants too expensive • So, Africans became slaves in America • Triangular trade • Goods from Europe to Africa- African slaves to America- American products to Europe Slave Trade

  22. Middle Passage • Slaves jammed into tight quarters • Chained together and dark • 3 to 6 weeks • 10-20% died on voyage

  23. Most slaves worked on plantations • Living conditions were harsh • Enslaved Africans= property by law • No rights, no freedoms • Reaction of slaves • Resisted by preserving culture • Religion • Rebellions • Escape Colonial Slavery

  24. Millions died Deprived people of their freedoms Future leaders of Africa gone Divided Africans Slave labor boosted American colonies Those culture and descent spread in Americas Effects of Slave Trade

  25. The End