Age of Exploration Spain • 3 countries sponsored early explorers. Italy Portugal
What is the easiest way to remember it all? • The Three G’s: • Gold • God • Glory
Gold • Gold was a hot item that explorers were looking for • really wealth, not just literal gold. • The search for spices and profits • What country dominated trade in Europe? • Italy • Other countries paid higher prices for limited products • So, What did they do?? • They found new routes to the places where products were made • Da Gama’s voyage to India made him a 3000% profit! • Other natural resources would come to be sold for profit as well • timber, sugar, tobacco, ivory, etc.
God • Europeans see spreading Christianity as a good thing • Many Christians felt it was their sacred duty to convert non Christians • Especially after the Reformation, competition will spring up • Colonization will become a race to convert native peoples to a particular brand of Christianity • Jesuits (Catholics) are some of the most active
Just like Gold, Glory was a relatively new idea in Europe • Renaissance focus of individual achievement • Printing press = fame for one’s actions was more possible • Individual kings wanted glory for their kingdoms • competition spreads
Questions • How did the Renaissance influence exploration? • What are the 3 main factors G? • Hint: GoGoGlo • Besides gold, what other natural resources were the explorers searching for? • How did the Reformation lead to the Age of Exploration?
Technological Advances… Ability to use new technology People were inspired by new inventions and ideas.
The Caravel • The caravel was a new, faster, more maneuverable ship • This ship had a newly designed hull • triangular sails that helped it maintain it’s course in storms • (easier to change direction)
The Compass • This invention would help people determine what direction they were traveling
The Astrolabe • This invention helped people tell how far north or south of the equator they were
Explorations • Prince Henry “The Navigator” • Not a navigator…a patron • Henry paid for many sea voyages • He also opened a school of navigation in Portugal • What did he expect to get out of all this?
Good: Doors to the Americas were opened A ‘New World’ was discovered Bad: Natives got diseases that killed them Natives lost their freedom, customs and pride Effects of Exploration
Voyages of Exploration Extension
Voyages of Discovery YearExplorerSponsorArea Explored 1418-1460 Various Portugal Madeira, Azores, west- African coast to cape Verde 1487-1488 Dias Portugal African coast to Cape of Good Hope 1492 Columbus Spain Bahamas, Santo Domingo 1493 Columbus Spain West Indian Islands 1497-1498 Cabot England Newfoundland, Nova Scotia 1497-1499 da Gama Portugal Cape of Good Hope, Indian Ocean 1498 Columbus Spain Trinidad, Venezuela 1499 Vespucci Spain Northeastern coast of S. America 1500 Cabral Portugal Brazil, Indian Ocean to W. India 1502-1504 Columbus Spain Central American Coast 1519-1522 Magellan Spain First circumnavigation of globe, Cape Horn, Pacific Ocean 1524 Verrazano France American coast from Virginia to Newfoundland 1533, 1534 Cartier France Quebec, St. Lawrence River 1577-1580 Drake England Circumnavigation of globe, W. coast- of N. and S. America
Voyages of Exploration Extension
Cape of Good Hope water route around Africa to India and back thought Asia actually the Americas The Americas Panama Brazil / Amazon River All water route around the world What is the significance of these explorations?
Treaty of Tordesillas • Portugal & Spain were arguing over new land • Pope drew a line to divide the “Indies” • To keep peace • Line through the Atlantic Ocean • East = Portugal • West = Spain
Good: Doors to the Americas were opened A ‘New World’ was discovered Bad: Natives got diseases that killed them Natives lost freedom, customs & pride Effects of Exploration
Positive Effects of Exploration • A “New World” was discovered • Columbian Exchange: exchange of goods b/w Europe & Americas • America never knew of horses, cows, chickens, pigs, sheep, goats, donkeys or oxen • New plants such as wheat, barley, rye, oats, oranges, apples, bananas, coffee • Europe never knew of corn, tomatoes, squash, tobacco, cacao, potatoes
Negative Effects of Exploration • Natives got diseases from explorers • Epidemics: smallpox, measles, influenza • were foreign to native Americans • 75 years after Columbus—population on Hispaniola went from 250,000 to 500 • Helped destroy entire empires—ie: Aztec Empire • Natives lost their freedom, customs & pride • Slave Trade • Discovery of areas in Africa led to importation of African slaves • Europeans started plantations in America for cultivation...forced natives to be slaves
Negative Effects of Exploration • African nations had no stable governments after colonization. • Warlords came in and took over.