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The Digestive System. Chapter 15. 15.1 Functions: mechanical and chemical breakdown of food        *absorption of nutrients Consists of alimentary canal and accessory organs. Wall of the Alimentary Canal. 15.2 Characteristics of the Canal.

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slide2

15.1

Functions: mechanical and chemical breakdown of food

       *absorption of nutrients

Consists of alimentary canal and accessory organs

15 2 characteristics of the canal
15.2 Characteristics of the Canal

1.  Mucosa - protects tissues and carries absorption

2.  Submucosa - glands, blood vessels, nerves

3.  Muscular Layer - smooth muscle tissue, circular & longitudinal fibers, pushes food  (PERISTALSIS)

4.  Serosa (serous layer) - visceral perioneum, outer covering of the tube, lubricates surfaces (serous fluid)

slide6

Mixing Movements

Contractions mix food with digestive juices

Peristalsis - pushes food down the tube

slide9

Teeth

Incisors

Cuspid (canine)

Bicuspids

Molars

slide17

Salivary Glands

Parotid - ear, cheek

Submandibular - below jaw

Sublingual - under tongue

slide18

Pharynx 

nasopharynx

oropharynx

laryngopharynx

esophagus
Esophagus

esophageal hiatus is where it penetrates the diaphragm

cardiac sphincter at entrance to stomach

slide21

Stomach

Regions

  • Cardiac
  • Fundic
  • Body (greater and lesser curvature)
  • Pyloric
stomach lining
Stomach Lining

Gastric Juices contain acids that break down food  - secreted by gastric glands

PEPSIN  - most important digestive enzyme for breaking down food

Mucus prevents stomach from digesting itself

slide23
Chyme - paste, after food has been broken down, released then into the duodenum via the pyloric sphincter valve

Rugae - folds within stomach

Gastric Pits contain glands to make juices

slide24

PANCREAS - secretes insulin which breaks down sugars

Pancreatic Juice also breaks down fat

slide25

 Liver

 1 large right lobe  | 1 smaller left lobe

liver ducts and vessels
Liver - ducts and vessels

Hepatic duct --> to common bile duct

Hepatic portal vein - circulates blood throughout liver

liver functions
Liver Functions

1.  blood glucose levels

2.  breakdown of lipids and fats

3.  protein metabolism

4.  stores vitamins

5.  destroys damaged RBCs

6.  removes toxins

7.  secretes bile

slide28
Remember Bili Lights?

Using bili lights is a therapeutic procedure performed on newborn or premature infants to reduce elevated levels of bilirubin. If blood levels of bilirubin become too high, the bilirubin begins to dissolve in the body tissues, producing the characteristic yellow eyes and skin of jaundice. 

slide29

Gall Bladder - under liver

          cystic duct --> common bile duct

          stores bile, digests fat

                 *gallstones may form

slide30

Small Intestine

Starts at the pyloric sphincter

1.  Duodenum

2.  Jejunum

3.  Ileum

*Mesentery 

Membrane holds it together,  contains blood vessels

greater omentum
Greater Omentum

a  "curtain-like" membrane that covers the intestines, stores fat and lays like a drape

slide35

The main function of the small intestine is to secrete chemicals that break down food and carry the nutrients away in the blood stream.  In one word:

ABSORPTION

slide36

Large Intestine

Cecum 

Appendix

Colon (4 parts)

   Cecum    Ascending    Transverse     Descending     Sigmoid

Rectum

Anus

function of large intestine
Function of Large Intestine

Secretes mucus,  reabsorbs water, contains bacteria to aid in digestion  (intestinal flora)

Mass Movements (defecation) - removes undigested food

The main job is 

WATER REABSORPTION...

slide40

stomach

transverse colon

ascending colon

descending colon

cecum

appendix

sigmoid colon

rectum

slide41

1.  esophagus

2.  liver

3.  stomach

4. pyloric sphincter

5.  duodenum

6.  pancreas

7.  jejunum

8.  ileum

9.  cecum

10. appendix

11.  ascending colon

12.  descending colon

13.  sigmoid colong

14.  anus

slide43

Disorders of the Digestive System

GERD

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

slide46

Hepatitis A

is caused by eating food and drinking water infected with a virus called HAV.  While it can cause swelling and inflammation in the liver, it doesn't lead to chronic disease. Almost everyone who gets hepatitis A has a full recovery, some may need hospitalization

Many people are recommended to receive hepatitis A vaccine, including people at increased risk for exposure to hepatitis A virus infection and people who are more likely to get seriously ill if infected with the virus

slide47
Hepatitis B is caused by the virus HBV. It is spread by contact with an infected person's blood, semen, or other body fluid. And, it is a sexually transmitted disease (STD).  

Some people never develop symptoms, others develop chronic symptoms that stay with them their whole life.

slide48

Hepatitis C is caused by the virus HCV. It is spread the same way as hepatitis B, through contact with an infected person's blood, semen, or body fluid (see above). 

Like hepatitis B, hepatitis C causes swelling of the liver and can cause liver damage that can lead to cancer. Most people who have hepatitis C develop a chronic infection. This may lead to a scarring of the liver, called cirrhosis. 

Blood banks test all donated blood for hepatitis C, greatly reducing the risk for getting the virus from blood transfusions or blood products.

slide49

Crampy abdominal pain

Fatigue

Loss of appetite

Pain with passing stool (tenesmus); bloody stool

Persistent, watery diarrhea

Weight loss

Constipation

slide50

IBS  - Irritable Bowel Syndrome

The muscles in the bowel wall may contract too forcefully or too weakly, too slowly or rapidly at certain times.

slide52

Lactose Intolerance 

Inability to digest milk, can cause stomach upset

slide54

Hernia

intestines poke through abdominal muscles

slide56
When people with celiac disease eat foods or use products containing gluten, their immune system responds by damaging or destroying villi

Without healthy villi, a person becomes malnourished, no matter how much food one eats.

slide57
Gallstones  (Cholelithiasis)

Gallstones are made from cholesterol and other things found in the bile. They can be smaller than a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball.

colon cancer
Colon Cancer

Colonoscopy is a screening technique to detect cancer. 

See Katie Couric's Colonoscopy