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The Digestive System

Chapter 38. The Digestive System. Breaks food down into a form usable by cells (small enough to diffuse into cells). Digestive System. Water Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals. Nutrients. The Digestive Enzymes. Section 38-2. Site Mouth Stomach

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The Digestive System

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  1. Chapter 38 The Digestive System

  2. Breaks food down into a form usable by cells (small enough to diffuse into cells). Digestive System

  3. Water Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals Nutrients

  4. The Digestive Enzymes Section 38-2 Site Mouth Stomach Small intestine(from pancreas) Small intestine Enzyme Role in Digestion Breaks down starches into disaccharides Breaks down proteins into large peptides Continues the breakdown of starch Continues the breakdown of protein Breaks down fat Breaks down remaining disaccharides into monosaccharides Breaks down dipeptides into amino acids. Salivary amylase Pepsin Amylase Trypsin Lipase Maltase, sucrase, lactasePeptidase

  5. Mouth Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Rectum Anus Pathway

  6. Mouth Pharynx Salivary glands Esophagus Liver Stomach Pancreas (behind stomach) Gallbladder (behind liver) Large intestine Small intestine Rectum The Digestive System Section 38-2

  7. Salivary glands Liver Pancreas Accessory Glands

  8. Liver Bile duct Pancreas Gallbladder Pancreatic duct Duodenum To rest of small intestine The Liver and the Pancreas Section 38-2

  9. Small intestine nutrients Large intestine water Absorption

  10. Circular folds Epithelial cells Villi Capillaries Lacteal Vein Artery The Small Intestine Section 38-2 Villus Small Intestine

  11. Heartburn Ulcers Diarrhea Constipation Digestive disorders

  12. Chapter 38 The Excretory System

  13. Helps maintain homeostasis. • Rids the body of the wastes of metabolism. • Excess salts • Carbon dioxide • Urea • Excess water • Maintains blood volume and pH. Functions

  14. Liver Lungs Kidneys Skin Organs of Excretion

  15. Blood from the intestines flows through the liver to be detoxified before traveling to the rest of the body. Breaks down excess proteins into the waste product urea. Liver

  16. Excrete carbon dioxide, water and heat. Lungs

  17. Remove waste products from the blood. • Excess water, excess salts and urea which make up urine. • Maintain blood pH. • Regulate water content of blood (volume). Kidneys

  18. The Urinary System Section 38-3 Artery Vein Kidney (Cross Section) Kidney Cortex Medulla Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra

  19. Filtration – everything but cells are filtered out of the blood (passive). • Reabsorption – water and nutrients are absorbed back into the blood (active). What remains behind is urine. • Excess water • Salts • Urea Kidney Function

  20. Capillaries Bowman’s capsule Cortex Glomerulus Renal artery Medulla Renal vein Collecting duct Ureter Vein To the bladder Artery To the ureter Loop of Henle Structure of the Kidneys Section 38-3 Kidney Nephron

  21. Having two kidneys provides a backup. If both fail, a transplant or dialysis is needed. Kidney Failure

  22. Kidney Dialysis Section 38-3 Blood in tubing flows through dialysis fluid Blood pump Vein Artery Used dialysis fluid Shunt Air detector Fresh dialysis fluid Dialysis machine Compressed air

  23. Excretes sweat: water, salt and urea. Excretes heat – helps maintain homeostasis. Skin

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