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Quiz on DNA & RNA. Actual link to quiz in case hyperlink doesn’t work: http://www.biologyjunction.com/qz\_DNA.html. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. Genes: small sections of DNA Controls production of proteins Nucleotide: base unit for strand of DNA (made of sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base.

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quiz on dna rna
Quiz on DNA & RNA
  • Actual link to quiz in case hyperlink doesn’t work:
  • http://www.biologyjunction.com/qz_DNA.html
protein synthesis
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • Genes: small sections of DNA
    • Controls production of proteins
    • Nucleotide: base unit for strand of DNA (made of sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base
protein synthesis3
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • Proteins are used to build cells and control chemical reactions so they do most of the work
    • Ex: breaking down glucose in cellular respiration, digesting food, making spindle fibers in mitosis
protein synthesis4
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • Proteins are polymers of amino acids
    • Amino acid chains are call polypeptides
  • Nucleotides in each gene has info for assembling string of amino acids that make up a single protein
protein synthesis5
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • Enzymes control all chemical reactions of organisms
  • DNA has instructions for making proteins, therefore, DNA controls cells
    • Provides workers with instructions
  • Workers for protein synthesis take instructions, the workers are RNA
replication fork annimation
Replication Fork Annimation
  • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120076/micro04.swf::DNA Replication Fork
protein synthesis7
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • RNA:
    • Nucleic acid
    • DNA = double helix (zipper);
    • RNA = single helix (one side of zipper)
protein synthesis8
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • RNA: workers for protein synthesis
    • Take instructions for how proteins are assembled
    • RNA assembles protein
protein synthesis9
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

3 Types of RNA that build proteins:

  • Messenger RNA (mRNA)
  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA)
protein synthesis10
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA):
    • Brings instructions from DNA to cytoplasm
    • In cytoplasm, moves to ribosome
    • The ribosome is made up of ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
protein synthesis11
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA):
    • Makes up ribosome
    • Binds to mRNA
    • Uses instructions to assemble amino acids in correct order
protein synthesis12
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA):
    • the “supplier”
    • Delivers amino acids to ribosome to be assembled into a protein

Click image to view movie

protein synthesis13
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • Transcription:
    • In nucleus, enzymes make an “RNA copy” of piece of DNA strand
    • Result: formation of 1 RNA molecule (1/2 zipper)

Click image to view movie

protein synthesis15
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • Genetic Code:
    • Genetic message of info for building protein
    • Proteins contain chains of amino acids
      • Language of proteins = alphabet of amino acids
    • In DNA, nitrogen bases are: A T C G
    • In RNA, nitrogen bases are: A U C G
protein synthesis17
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • Genetic Code:
    • Codon: group of three bases in mRNA
    • All organisms use same genetic code
protein synthesis18
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • Translation:
    • Converting info in sequence of mRNA bases into sequence of amino acids in protein
    • Takes place at ribosomes in cytoplasm
protein synthesis19
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • Translation: From mRNA to Protein
    • mRNA made in nucleus travels to cytoplasm
    • In cytoplasm, ribosome attaches to strand of mRNA like clothespin clamped onto clothesline
protein synthesis20
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • Function of tRNA
    • Transfers RNA to ribosomes
    • Each tRNA attaches to one type of amino acid
protein synthesis21
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • Function of tRNA:
    • Pairs with mRNA codon, two molecules join together
    • Ribosome slides along mRNA to next codon
    • Chain of amino acids is formed until a “stop” codon is reached on mRNA strand
protein synthesis23
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • 5 Steps of Translation:
    • Ribosome attaches to mRNA strand; tRNA approaches ribosome
    • AUG codon signals “start” of protein synthesis
    • New tRNA molecule attaches to ribosome; amino acids on tRNA molecules join
    • Ribosome slides along mRNA to next codon; new tRNA carrying amino acid attaches to ribosome and mRNA
    • Chain of amino acids is formed until “stop” codon
dnai animation of protein synthesis process from beginning watson crick to end
DNAi animation of protein synthesis process from beginning (Watson & Crick) to end
  • http://www.dnai.org/a/index.html
annimations
Annimations
  • http://www.biostudio.com/demo_freeman_protein_synthesis.htm
  • http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=AP1302
  • http://www.lewport.wnyric.org/JWANAMAKER/animations/Protein%20Synthesis%20-%20long.html
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