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Mini Quiz. 1. Data that derive from the researcher's direct observation of what the subject does in some predefined context are a. L data. b. I data. c. S data. d. B data. Mini Quiz.

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mini quiz
Mini Quiz

1. Data that derive from the researcher's direct observation of what the subject does in some predefined context are

  • a. L data.
  • b. I data.
  • c. S data.
  • d. B data.
mini quiz1
Mini Quiz
  • 2. _____________________ ask a respondent to interpret a meaningless, ambiguous stimulus in order to access the inner workings of the person's mind.
  • a. Rationally constructed tests
  • b. Projective tests
  • c. Factor analytic tests
  • d. Objective tests
mini quiz2
Mini Quiz
  • 3. The basis of the _____________ method of test construction is to come up with items that seem directly, obviously, and logically related to what it is you wish to measure.
  • a. rational
  • b. empirical
  • c. philosophical
  • d. factor analytic
mini quiz3
Mini Quiz

4. For any rationally constructed personality scale to work, it must satisfy which of the following conditions?

  • a. The items on the form must all be valid indicators of what the tester is trying to measure.
  • b. The person who completes the form must be willing to accurately report his or her self-assessment.
  • c. Each item must mean the same thing to the person who fills out the form as it did to the psychologist who wrote it.
  • d. All of the above conditions must be satisfied for the scale to work.
mini quiz4
Mini Quiz
  • 5) Which one?
  • A) B
  • B) D
  • C) A
  • D) C
basic steps
Basic Steps
  • 1) Create a test
  • 2) Validate the test
  • 3) Use the test
negative correlation2
Negative Correlation

.

.

.

r = - .85

.

.

zero correlation1
Zero Correlation

.

.

.

.

.

r = .00

correlation coefficient
Correlation Coefficient
  • The sign of a correlation (+ or -) only tells you the direction of the relationship
  • The value of the correlation only tells you about the size of the relationship (i.e., how close the scores are to the regression line)
slide22
Which is a bigger effect?

r = .40 or r = -.40

How are they different?

practice
Practice
  • Do you think the following variables are positively, negatively or uncorrelated to each other?
  • Alcohol consumption & Driving skills
  • Miles of running a day & speed in a foot race
  • Height & GPA
  • Forearm length & foot length
interpreting a correlation
Interpreting a Correlation
  • What does it actually mean in “people words”?
  • Binomial Effect Size Display (BESD)
slide25
BESD
  • 200 subjects (all sick)
  • Drug given to 100 of them
  • At the end:
  • 100 live and 100 die
  • If the effect of the drug was .00 – what does that mean?
slide26
BESD

When r = .00

slide27
BESD
  • 200 subjects (all sick)
  • Drug given to 100 of them
  • At the end:
  • 100 live and 100 die
  • What if the drugs effect was .40 – what does that look like?
slide28
BESD

When r = .40

slide29
BESD

Thus, if you take the drug you have a 70% chance of living compared to only 30% if you do not take the drug!

When r = .40

slide30
BESD
  • How to compute:
  • 200 subjects (all sick)
  • Drug given to 100 of them
  • At the end:
  • 100 live and 100 die
  • Drugs effect was .30
slide31
BESD

When r = .30

slide34
1) Drop the decimal (30)

2) Divide by 2 (30 / 2 = 15)

3) Add to number in upper left cell (50 + 15 = 65)

BESD

When r = .30

slide35
Plug in value
  • Compute other cell values
BESD

When r = .30

slide36
Plug in value
  • Compute other cell values
BESD

When r = .30

slide37
Plug in value
  • Compute other cell values
BESD

When r = .30

besd practice
BESD Practice
  • Create BESDs for the following
  • r = .10
  • r = .55
  • r = .80
correlations
Correlations
  • Small = .10
  • Medium = .30
  • Large = .50
basic steps1
Basic Steps
  • 1) Create a test
  • 2) Validate the test
  • 3) Use the test
basic steps2
Basic Steps
  • 1) Create a test
  • 2) Validate the test
  • 3) Use the test
validating a test
Validating a Test
  • Is a test measuring what it is suppose to measure?
    • Not a YES or NO answer
  • Types of Validity
  • 1) Predictive
  • 2) Concurrent
  • 3) Content
  • 4) Construct
predictive and concurrent
Predictive and Concurrent
  • Called “Criterion-orientated” validity
  • Does the test predict some type of criterion?
  • Predictive – criterion is in the future
  • Concurrent – criterion is in the present
content validity
Content Validity
  • Test items represent the entire “universe” of possible items
group activity
Group Activity
  • What qualities does the trait of extraversion contain?
    • e.g., assertiveness
    • Come up with at least 6 qualities
  • Create one item to measure each quality.
content validity1
Content Validity

Extraversion

content validity2
Content Validity

Positive Emotions

Warmth

Gregariousness

Excitement-Seeking

Assertiveness

Activity

Extraversion

content validity3
Content Validity

Have a lot of fun.

Make friends easily

Positive Emotions

Love large parties

Warmth

Gregariousness

Excitement-Seeking

Love excitement.

Assertiveness

Activity

Take charge.

Am always busy.

content validity4
Content Validity
  • Not normally established empirically
  • Established by experts in the field
construct validity
Construct Validity
  • The test actually gauges the personality dimension being measured.
  • How can you do this?
  • First need to determine if its internal structure is correct.
content validity5
Content Validity

Extraversion

content validity6
Content Validity

Positive Emotions

Warmth

Gregariousness

Excitement-Seeking

Assertiveness

Activity

Extraversion

construct validity1
Construct Validity
  • Next, you need to create a “model” of the construct
slide56
Reliable

Talking

Risk taker

Extraversion

Eye-contact

Stimulation

Height

slide57
Reliable

Talking

Risk taker

Nomological Net

Contains both

*Criterion-orientated validity

*Discriminant validity

Extraversion

Eye-contact

Stimulation

Height

slide58
Reliable

Talking

Risk taker

-.04

.60

.54

Extraversion

.32

.44

.11

Eye-contact

Stimulation

Height

construct validity2
Construct Validity
  • Uses all types of validity to determine if a test actually gauges the personality dimension being measured
    • There is actually even more than can be done to examine construct validity

-e.g., “changes over time”

  • Note: you NEVER get a single number that represents “construct validity”
basic steps3
Basic Steps
  • 1) Create a test
  • 2) Validate the test
  • 3) Use the test
basic steps4
Basic Steps
  • 1) Create a test
    • Rational Method
    • Projective Tests
    • Factor Analytic Method
    • Empirical Method
    • Combination of Methods
  • 2) Validate the test
    • Predictive
    • Concurrent
    • Content
    • Construct
  • 3) Use the test
what is a trait of personality
What is a trait of personality?
  • A “unit” of measurement
  • Allport presents 8 Criteria that define a personality trait
traits
Traits
  • 1) A trait has more than nominal existence
  • Traits are real!
traits1
Traits
  • 2) A trait is more generalized than a behavior

lie

steal

cheat

traits2
Traits
  • 2) A trait is more generalized than a behavior

lie

steal

Honesty

cheat

traits3
Traits
  • 2) A trait is more generalized than a behavior
    • There are systems of behaviors
    • Traits my embrace anywhere between 2 to hundreds of behaviors
traits4
Traits
  • 3) A trait is dynamic
  • A trait CAUSES behavior, it is not just a summary of behavior

lie

steal

YES!

Honesty

cheat

traits5
Traits
  • 3) A trait is dynamic
  • A trait CAUSES behavior, it is not just a summary of behavior

lie

steal

NO!

Honesty

cheat

traits6
Traits
  • 4) The existence of a trait my be established empirically or statistically
  • Statistical techniques can be used to examine coherence among behaviors
traits7
Traits
  • 5) Traits are only relatively independent of each other
  • It will be difficult to isolate “fundamental” traits that are completely independent of each other
traits8
Traits
  • 6) A trait of personality, psychologically considered, is not the same as a moral quality.
traits9
Traits
  • 7) Acts, and even habits, that are inconsistent with a trait are not proof of the non-existence of the trait
  • Not realistic to expect perfect consistency
    • Some traits not important in some people
    • Traits interact with each other within a person
    • Context also determines behavior
traits10
Traits
  • 8) A trait may be viewed either in the light of the personality which contains it, or in the light of its distribution in the population at large.
  • Some traits are unique and some are universal
  • Can examine either
    • Universal traits across people
    • Unique blends of traits within a person
using traits to understand behavior
Using Traits to Understand Behavior
  • Different approaches:
  • The Single-Trait Approach
  • The Many-Trait Approach
  • The Essential-Trait Approach
  • The Simultaneous-Trait Approach
the single trait approach
The Single Trait Approach
  • An in-depth research program of a single trait
add score
Add score
  • Reverse key
  • 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
  • Historical context
    • Nazi Germany
  • Philosophical roots
    • Fromm
      • To avoid choices people turn their will over to external authorities
      • “I am just following orders”
  • In the 1930s created the “F – Scale”
slide82
Conventionalism

Authoritarianism

slide83
Authoritarian submission
  • Conventionalism

Authoritarianism

slide84
Authoritarian submission
  • Conventionalism

Authoritarian aggression

Authoritarianism

slide85
Authoritarian submission
  • Conventionalism

Authoritarian aggression

Anti – ‘intraception”

Authoritarianism

slide86
Authoritarian submission
  • Conventionalism

Authoritarian aggression

Anti – ‘intraception”

Authoritarianism

Superstition

slide87
Authoritarian submission
  • Conventionalism

Authoritarian aggression

Anti – ‘intraception”

Authoritarianism

Superstition

Power and toughness

slide88
Authoritarian submission
  • Conventionalism

Authoritarian aggression

Anti – ‘intraception”

Authoritarianism

Superstition

Destructiveness and cynicism

Power and toughness

slide89
Authoritarian submission
  • Conventionalism

Authoritarian aggression

Anti – ‘intraception”

Authoritarianism

Projectivity

Superstition

Destructiveness and cynicism

Power and toughness

slide90
Authoritarian submission
  • Conventionalism

Authoritarian aggression

Sexual repression

Anti – ‘intraception”

Authoritarianism

Projectivity

Superstition

Destructiveness and cynicism

Power and toughness

authoritarianism1
Authoritarianism
  • Note how this trait ties together many diverse behaviors
  • Also note how it can explain inconsistencies in behavior
    • A person VERY respectful to a superior may be cruel to those who rank lower
authoritarianism2
Authoritarianism
  • Over 4,000 articles on this trait!
  • Findings:
  • No relation between authoritarianism and political party (note: communism findings)
  • Note: not conservatism, but pseudoconservatism
    • e.g., taxes abolished, no trials, etc.
authoritarianism3
Authoritarianism

Findings:

  • Society is in turmoil, authoritarians more likely to support “strong” political candidates
  • When standard of living declines authoritarians more likely to favor restrictions of welfare and bans on abortion
authoritarianism4
Authoritarianism

Roots:

  • Child-rearing practices
    • Regularly and severely punished
    • Learn to fear, obey, and be unquestioning of authority
  • Genetic
    • Biological siblings = .35
    • Adopted siblings = .05
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