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14.1 Church Reform and the Crusades. The Catholic Church underwent reform and launched Crusades against Muslims. The Age of Faith. Spiritual Revival Starting in the 900s, monasteries help bring about a spiritual revival Reformers help restore and expand Church power.

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14 1 church reform and the crusades

14.1 Church Reform and the Crusades

The Catholic Church underwent reform and launched Crusades against Muslims.

the age of faith
The Age of Faith
  • Spiritual Revival
    • Starting in the 900s, monasteries help bring about a spiritual revival
    • Reformers help restore and expand Church power

Coat of Arms of Cluny Abbey: "Gules two keys in saltire the wards upwards and outwards or overall a sword in pale argent".

Founded in 910, this is the Benedictine Abbey of Cluny as it looked in 2004.

problems in the church
Problems in the Church
  • Some Church officials marry even though the Church objects
  • Some officials practice simony—selling religious offices
  • Kings use lay investiture to appoint bishops
  • Reformers believe only the Church should appoint bishops
reform and church organization
Reform and Church Organization
  • Starting in the 1100s, popes reorganize the Church like a kingdom
  • Pope’s advisors make Church laws; diplomats travel throughout Europe
  • Church collects tithes; uses money to care for sick or poor

“Peasants paying tithes” (17th century) school of Pieter Brueghel the Younger

cathedrals cities of god
Cathedrals—Cities of God
  • Early Cathedrals
    • Between 800-1100, churches are built in Romanesque style
    • Style includes thick walls and pillars, small windows, round arches
a new style of church architecture
A New Style of Church Architecture
  • Gothic style evolves around 1100; term from Germanic tribe, Goths
  • Gothic style has large, tall windows for more light; pointed arches
  • Churches have stained glass windows, many sculptures
  • About 500 Gothic churches are built from 1170 to 1270

Gothic Architecture

The master builders in France, where the Gothic style originated, developed techniques of structural engineering that were key to Gothic architecture:

ribbed vaults that supported the roof’s weight

flying buttresses that transferred weight to thick, exterior walls

pointed arches that framed huge stained glass windows

tall spires that seemed to be pointing to heaven

traditional church floor plan
Traditional Church Floor Plan

“Liturgical East”

Source: (http://www.hope.evangelical-lutheran.ca/glossary.htm) a website explaining church architecture.

the crusades the beginning
The Crusades: The Beginning

Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos who asked Pope Urban II for help (left)

  • In 1093, Byzantine emperor asks for help fighting the Turks
  • Pope Urban II issues a call for a Crusade—a “holy war”

Artistic depiction of Pope Urban II (left), and him preaching the First Crusade (right)

goals of the crusades
Goals of the Crusades
  • Pope - Reclaim Jerusalem
  • Patriarch – eliminate Muslims
  • Both - Reunite Christianity (but on whose terms?)
  • Kings - send away knights who cause trouble
  • Younger sons -earn land or win glory by fighting
  • Merchants (later) - gain wealth through trade.
  • Warriors - promised a place in Heaven
knights warriors on horseback
Knights: Warriors on Horseback
  • The Technology of Warfare Changes
    • Leather saddle and stirrups enable knights to handle heavy weapons
    • In 700s, mounted knights become most important part of an army

Plate Armour


Gambeson, a padded jacket worn alone or in combination with chainmail

knighthood and the code of chivalry
Knighthood and theCode of Chivalry
  • The Code of Chivalry
    • The Church insists
    • By 1100s knights obey a code of chivalry—a set of ideals on how to act
    • They are to protect weak and poor; serve feudal lord, God, chosen lady

"Stitching the Standard" by Edmund Blair Leighton: the lady prepares for a knight to go to war

knighthood and the code of chivalry1
Knighthood and the Code of Chivalry
  • A Knight’s Training
    • Boys begin to train for knighthood at age 7; usually knighted at 21
    • Knights gain experience in local wars and tournaments—mock battles
knighthood and the code of chivalry2
Knighthood and the Code of Chivalry
  • Brutal Reality of Warfare
    • Castles are huge fortresses where lords live
    • Attacking armies use wide range of strategies and weapons
early crusades
Early Crusades:
  • 1st (1096-1099)

- Crusaders capture most of the Holy Land, including Jerusalem in 1099 (Kingdom of Jerusalem), but cannot hold it

  • 2nd(1147-1148): Crusaders fails to retake it In 1187, Saladin—Muslim leader—retakes Jerusalem
the third crusade 1189 1192
The Third Crusade : 1189-1192
  • Led mostly by Richard the Lion-Hearted—king of England
  • The time of Robin Hood

19th-century portrait of Richard by Merry-Joseph Blondel

the third crusade 1189 11921
The Third Crusade : 1189-1192
  • In 1192 Richard realizes that no matter how many times he takes Jerusalem, the Muslim will always reconquer it.
  • He and Saladin make peace after many battles
  • Saladin keeps Jerusalem but allows Christian pilgrims to enter the city
the later crusades are in effective
The Later Crusades are in effective
  • Fourth Crusade (1200-1204)
    • Crusaders sack the Christian city Zara and are excommunicated by the pope for it.
    • The Venetian leadership keeps their excommunication a secret. Then Crusaders sack Constantinople in 1204
  • Two other Crusades strike Egypt, but fail to weaken the Muslims

Looting of Constantinople, painting by Eugene Delacroix, 1840

the children s crusade
The Children’s Crusade
  • The Children’s Crusade by Gustave Doré
  • This event may very well merely be a legend embellished over time.
  • The traditional story says that in 1212 thousands of “boys” possibly die or are enslaved in a failed crusade.
  • But the use of the word “Boys” doesn’t necessarily mean children.
a spanish crusade
A Spanish Crusade
  • Most of Spain controlled by Moors, a Muslim people
  • Christians fight Reconquista—drive Muslims from Spain, 1100-1492
  • Spain has Inquisition—court to suppress heresy; expels non-Christians

Inquisition scene of people accused of heresy being tortured.

the effects of the crusades
The Effects of the Crusades
  • Crusades show power of Church in convincing thousands to fight
  • Women who stay home manage the estate and business affairs
  • Merchants expand trade, bring back many goods from Southwest Asia
  • Crusades create lasting bitterness between Muslims and Christians
  • Failure of later crusades weakens pope and nobles, strengthens kings MAYBE, MAYBE NOT