14.1 Church Reform and the Crusades. The Catholic Church underwent reform and launched Crusades against Muslims. The Age of Faith. Spiritual Revival Starting in the 900s, monasteries help bring about a spiritual revival Reformers help restore and expand Church power.
The Catholic Church underwent reform and launched Crusades against Muslims.
Coat of Arms of Cluny Abbey: "Gules two keys in saltire the wards upwards and outwards or overall a sword in pale argent".
Founded in 910, this is the Benedictine Abbey of Cluny as it looked in 2004.
“Peasants paying tithes” (17th century) school of Pieter Brueghel the Younger
The master builders in France, where the Gothic style originated, developed techniques of structural engineering that were key to Gothic architecture:
ribbed vaults that supported the roof’s weight
flying buttresses that transferred weight to thick, exterior walls
pointed arches that framed huge stained glass windows
tall spires that seemed to be pointing to heaven
Source: (http://www.hope.evangelical-lutheran.ca/glossary.htm) a website explaining church architecture.
Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos who asked Pope Urban II for help (left)
Artistic depiction of Pope Urban II (left), and him preaching the First Crusade (right)
Gambeson, a padded jacket worn alone or in combination with chainmail
"Stitching the Standard" by Edmund Blair Leighton: the lady prepares for a knight to go to war
- Crusaders capture most of the Holy Land, including Jerusalem in 1099 (Kingdom of Jerusalem), but cannot hold it
19th-century portrait of Richard by Merry-Joseph Blondel
Looting of Constantinople, painting by Eugene Delacroix, 1840
Inquisition scene of people accused of heresy being tortured.