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Church Reforms and the Crusades

Church Reforms and the Crusades

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Church Reforms and the Crusades

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  1. Church Reforms and the Crusades Chapter 14 Section 1

  2. Key Terms • Simony • Gothic • Urban II • Crusades • Saladin • Richard the Lion Hearted • Reconquista • Inquisition

  3. The Age of Faith • 910 Clumy in France • Monastaries led to spiritual revival • Return to basic principles • New religious orders • Popes expanded power and authority • The Age of Faith was born

  4. Problems in the Church • Some priests nearly illeterate • Barley read prayers • Popes men of questionable morals • Bishop concerned more as feudal lord than religion

  5. Problems in the Church • 3 main issues • Village priests were married and had families against church rulings • Simony-Bishops sold positions in the church • Lay Investiture, kings appoint bishops reformers wanted the church to do it

  6. Reform and Church Organization • Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory VII enforced laws against simony and marriage • 1100’-1200’ church restructured to look like a kingdom • Pope advisors called the papal Curia

  7. Reform and Church Organization • Curia acted as a court • Canon Law on marriage, divorce, inheritance • Diplomats traveled through Europe for the pope • Church collected taxes in for of a tithe • Used money for the sick and ran most hospitals

  8. New Religious Orders • 1200’s monk and friars took vow of poverty, chastity, and obedience • Friars- begged owned nothing • Dominic- Spanish priest formed the Dominicans • Importance of study • Were scholars

  9. New Religious Orders • Francis of Assisi- found the Franciscans treated humans and animals as spiritual brothers • 1212 Clare and Francis founded Poor Clares and order for women • Women were not allowed to travel • Took care of the sick

  10. Cathedrals- Cities of God • Built in cities • 800-1100 built in Romanesque style • Round arches • Heavy roofs • Thick walls • Pillars • Tiny windows

  11. Cathedrals Cities of God • 1100’s new style of architecture • Gothic-comes from German tribe (Goths) • Light from huge stained glass windows • Sculptures and wood carvings • Built like they were reaching the heavens

  12. Cathedrals Cities of God • Notre Dame- 100 feet tall • 500 gothic churches built between 1170-1270

  13. The Crusades • Urban II called for a Holy War • Crusades- had economic, political and social, religious motives • Muslims controlled Palestine and threatened Constatinople

  14. The Crusades • Pope wanted to reclaim Palestine and unite Christendom • Split in 1054 • Kings saw crusades as a way to get rid of some knights • Younger sons participated not likely to inherit from parents

  15. The Crusades • Merchants prospered by loaning money for the Crusades • Leased ships to transport armies • Pisa, Genoa, and Venice wanted to control trade routes

  16. The First and Second Crusade • Pope Urban’s call brought religious support • Those who died in the Crusade were assured to go to heaven • Red Cross on tunic • “God wills it”

  17. The First and Second Crusade • 1097 3 armies outside Constantinople • Ill prepared for war • Knew little of geography, climate, or culture • No strategy to capture Jerusalem • Captured the city July 15, 1079

  18. The First and Second Crusades • 4 feudal estates carved from 650 miles of land • Each ruled by a noble • 1144 Edessa was captured by the Turks • Second Crusade organized to recapture the city (fails) • 1187 Jerusalem falls to Saladin

  19. Third Crusade • To recapture Jerusalem • Three most powerful monarchs • Philip II of France • Frederick I German Emperor • Richard the Lion Hearted English King • Phillip argued and went home • Frederick drowned

  20. Third Crusade • Richard led the Crusade • Fought many battles with Saladin • 1192 made a truce • Jerusalem in Muslim hands, but would allow pilgrimages

  21. Crusading Spirit Dwindles • 1204 4th Crusade fails to capture Jerusalem • Knights loot Constantinople • 1200’s 4 more Crusades, all unsuccessful

  22. The Children’s Crusade • 1212-thousands of children set out to conquer Jerusalem • Led by Stephen of Cloyes • No weapons • Died of cold and starvation • Some sold into slavery

  23. The Children’s Crusade • Germany Nicholas of Cologne marched with 20,000 children • Marched to Rome • Most died • Met with Pope told to go home till older • 2000 made it back to Germany

  24. A Spanish Crusade • Muslims (Moors) controlled most of Spain • Reconquista-effort by Spanish to drive out the Muslims • 1492 Granada fell to the Christian Army of Ferdinand and Isabella

  25. A Spanish Crusade • Inquisition- court held by the church to suppress heresy • Heretics were people who belief’s differed from the church • Many Jews and Muslims converted in the 1400’s • Inquisition suspected Jews and Muslims as heretics

  26. A Spanish Crusade • Suspects questioned for weeks • Some tortured • Once they confessed they were burned at the stake • 1492 all practicing Jews and Muslims were expelled

  27. The Effects of the Crusades • Showed the power of the Church • European merchants expanded trade between Europe and Southwest Asia • Spices, fruits, cloths • Failure of Crusades lessened the power of the Pope

  28. The Effects of the Crusades • Weakened feudal nobility • Increased power of the kings • Fall of Constantinople Byzantine Empire • Intolerance and prejudice by Christians left legacy of bitterness and hatred

  29. The Effects of the Crusades • Relationships between Christians, Jews and Muslims leadership worsened • Jews in Europe face increased persecution • Led to growth in trade, towns and universities in Medieval Europe