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Competing in the 21 st Century. David Kazmer, P.E., Ph.D. Univ. Mass. Lowell. Agenda. Current Trends Globalization Politicization Strategies Consolidation Specialization Products Processes . Globalization Concepts. Efficient Resourcing Labor Materials Regulations Environmental

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competing in the 21 st century

Competing in the 21st Century

David Kazmer, P.E., Ph.D.

Univ. Mass. Lowell

agenda
Agenda
  • Current Trends
    • Globalization
    • Politicization
  • Strategies
    • Consolidation
    • Specialization
      • Products
      • Processes
globalization concepts
GlobalizationConcepts
  • Efficient Resourcing
    • Labor
    • Materials
    • Regulations
      • Environmental
      • Intellectual property
  • Trend Escalating
    • Infrastructure
    • Market access
globalization typical case studies india
Globalization:Typical Case Studies (India)
  • Flextronics: printed circuit board assembly, plastics manufacturing, box builds, and testing services.
  • Solectron: manufacturing unit and design center in Bangalore and a post manufacturing center in Mumbai.
  • Samsung: home appliances, cell phones, PC monitors and disk drives, laser printers, fax machines and televisions.
  • LG Electronics: home appliances, computer peripherals and televisions.
  • General Electric: major R&D center in Bangalore.
globalization long term consequences
Globalization:Long Term Consequences
  • Lack of supply chain flexibility
    • Raw materials availability, political fall-out, shipping, demand fluctuations…
    • Reduction of internal capabilities (NPD)
  • Sharing of know-how leads to new competitors
    • Outright theft of designs
    • Access to common components
politicization concepts
Politicization:Concepts
  • Political lobbying & legislation has extraordinary effects on manufacturing
    • Cost (value of dollar, interest rates)
    • Infrastructure (OSHA, health care)
    • Tax incentives (research, depreciation)
    • Technology initiatives (nano, bio, energy, …)
    • Anti-plastics campaign (PVC, diseases, …)
  • Very dynamic (election year vs. not)
politicization case study
Politicization:Case Study
  • In 2003, US imported more than 100bn plastic bags
  • A coalition (Intelplast Group, PCL Packaging and Sonoco Products) claimed that Asian countries were flooding the US market with below-cost PE bags and demanded an anti-dumping duty
  • In September, the US Inter’l Trade Commission determined that "there is a reasonable indication that a US industry is threatened with material injury by reason of imports of polyethylene retail carrier bags from China, Malaysia and Thailand that are allegedly sold in the United States at less than fair value".
politicization case study8
Politicization:Case Study
  • US Plastics industry went from surplus of $894 million in 2000 to a deficit of $1,387 million in 2002
    • A swing of $2,281 million.
  • In 2001, China exported $6bn of fabricated plastic products last year.
    • China also exports plastics in many other forms…
    • In 2002 China doubled the volume of its exports
  • China is world's largest petrochemical importer
    • Chinese petrochemical demand is doubling every 8 years.
agenda9
Agenda
  • Current Trends
    • Globalization
    • Politicization
  • Strategies
    • Consolidation
    • Specialization
      • Products
      • Processes
consolidation concepts
ConsolidationConcepts
  • Mergers & acquisitions have changed nature of the industry
    • Fewer, bigger producers
  • Motivation
    • Focus on large multi-million $$ customers
    • Global footprints near points of assembly
    • Provide more of the supply chain, start to end
    • Enable new business & technology strategies
consolidation case study
Consolidation Case Study
  • Nypro
    • Not very significant until 1990
    • Currently $800MM in sales
  • Strategy
    • Globalization
    • Outsourcing (manufacturing, design, inventory)
    • Bankruptcies and consolidations
    • More value added in and out of press
      • Investment in global business & technology
product specialization concepts
Product Specialization Concepts
  • Processors can focus on products
    • Vertical integration allows tight integration between market, design, and processing
  • Research indicates plastic parts are 10-40% of product value
    • Value is retained if vertically integrated
    • Outsourced suppliers typically recoup 5-10%
  • Product technology & IP raises barriers to competition
product specialization case study
Product Specialization Case Study
  • Head up displaymaker
    • Internal molder
    • $15 reflector
      • 0.25” Thick
      • 100 sec cycle
    • Possible cost: ?
    • Is it OK?
  • Other example: Visteon & HVAC Units
  • Other example: Nypro & cell phones
process specialization concepts
Process Specialization Concepts
  • Focus on advanced processes
    • Technology allows new capabilities
    • Investment, know how, and IP provides barriers for competition
  • Similarly, process focus can lead to a market focus
    • Market focus allows greater recognition with better, more confident service
process specialization case study
Process Specialization Case Study
  • Proto-mold
    • Automated quote,design, build, mold
      • $=f(Q,t)
      • Suggested changes
    • Parts in 5 days
      • 100-10,000 qty
      • $7.00 - $3.00 vs. ~$0.40 in commodity market
  • Other example: NAL & Stanley in auto lighting
    • Use of multi-shot molding
conclusions
Conclusions
  • It isn’t all about labor rates
    • Automation & localization can largely offset
      • True commodities (bags) in jeopardy?
  • It is about differentiation
    • Market understanding, penetration, & recognition
    • Product & process specialization
    • Cost & time performance
final thoughts
Final Thoughts
  • Mid-Term: Oil Supply
    • Increasing Asian demand
    • Weakening dollar
      • Government debt
      • Trade deficit
      • Euro as preferred currency
  • Long-Term: Labor Demand
    • Global supply of all labor
    • Improving supply chains