Conjunctions • A conjunction is a word that joins words or groups of words. • There are three types of conjunctions • The first type is called the coordinating conjunction. • The coordinating conjunctions are FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
Examples: • Jill or Anna (combines two nouns) • strict but fair (combines two adjectives) • over the river and through the woods (combines two prepositional phrases) • Alice Walker wrote the book, yet she did not write the movie script. (combines two sentences)
Conjunction or Preposition? • The word for may be used either as a conjunction or as a preposition. • When for joins groups of words that are independent clauses (or complete sentences) it is used as a conjunction. • Otherwise, it is a preposition. • Examples: • He waited patiently, for he knew his ride would be along soon. (conjunction) • He waited patiently for his ride. (preposition)
Correlative Conjunctions • The second type of conjunction is called the correlative conjunction. • Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that connect words or groups of words used in the same way. • The correlative conjunctions are: both…and either…or neither…nor not only…but also whether…or • Examples: Both Bill Russell and Larry Bird have played for the Celtics. • She looked neither to the left nor to the right.
Compound Subjects and Verbs • Sometimes two sentences have the same verb with different subjects. You can combine the two subjects by linking them with the conjunctions and or or. • Example: Dolphins and porpoises look a little like fish. • Two sentences can also have the same subject with two different verbs. You can use the conjunctions and, but, or or to connect the two verbs. • Example: Dolphins swim like fish but breathe like other mammals.
Change the sentences below to include a compound subject or verb. • Paris remains a favorite tourist attraction. London remains a famous tourist attraction. • The rain has fallen for days. The rain is still falling in some areas.
Combining sentences using conjunctions • Conjunctions can be used to combine two sentences together. • Sentences combined with a conjunction are called compound sentences. • To combine two sentences with a conjunction, you must place a comma in front of the conjunction. • Example: My brother entered the annual chili cook-off, and his chili won a prize.
Combine the following sentences with a comma and a conjunction • I didn’t help him cook the chili. I helped him clean up the kitchen. • We can help cook the meal. We can help wash the dishes.
Subordinating Conjunctions • The third type of conjunction is called the subordinate conjunction. • Subordinating conjunctions begin subordinate clauses. • A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb and is used as a part of a sentence. • An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. • Example: I woke up late this morning.
A subordinate clause is introduced by a subordinate conjunction and cannot stand alone as a complete sentence. • Example: Since the day we met • The subordinating conjunctions are: after because though although before unless as how until as if if when as long as in order that whenever as much as since where as soon as so that wherever as though than while
What is the subordinate clause in each sentence? • Before the sun had risen, we left for the cabin. • Around 1900, as the buffalo became nearly extinct, conservationists fought for its protection. • I have more work to do today because I did not paint yesterday. • I paint where there is plenty of fresh air.