conjunction n.
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Conjunction. Presented by: HANG Sokharo LY Bela SENG Vibol. 1. Definition. A conjunction is a word that joins single words and groups of words. We normally use conjunction to form simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence and compound-complex sentence.

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Presented by:

HANG Sokharo

LY Bela

SENG Vibol


  • A conjunction is a word that joins single words and groups of words.
  • We normally use conjunction to form simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence and compound-complex sentence.
  • Generally, there are 4 types of conjunctions:

Coordinating Conjunction

Subordinating Conjunction

Correlative Conjunction

Conjunctive Adverb



coordinating conjunction
Coordinating Conjunction

A coordinating conjunction (Coordinator) joins words

or groups of words that have equal grammatical

weight in a sentence.

There are only seven coordinators, which you can

remember by the phrase











  • And expresses addition.

Example: Chorn is easy-going, and he is quite funny.

  • But expresses contrast.

Example: Chorn is easy-going, but he sometimes loses his temper.

  • For expresses reason.

Example: Chorn is easy-going, for he enjoys just about everything.

  • Or expresses choice.

Example: Chorn is easy-going, or at least he seems that way.



  • So expresses result.

Example: Chorn is easy-going, so many people like him.

  • Yet expresses contrast (More surprise than but).

Example: Chorn is easy-going, yet he gets nervous about tests.

  • Nor is used to join two negative clauses. When nor begins the second clause, the auxiliary verb or the verb be is placed before the subject. A negative is not used in the second clause.

Example: The box is not very big, nor is it very heavy.



punctuation guidelines
Punctuation Guidelines
  • Pattern 1 — connecting two main clauses

When you connect two main clauses with

coordinating conjunction, use a comma.

Example: While I am at work, my dog sleeps on the bed, and my cat naps in the bathtub.

  • Pattern 2 — connecting two items

You can also use a coordinating conjunction (And,

but, or and yet) to connect any two items.

Example: My dog has too many fleas and too much hair.



punctuation guidelines1
Punctuation Guidelines
  • Pattern 3 — connecting three or more items in a series

When you have three or more items in a series

(phrases), you generally use a comma before the

coordinating conjunction (And, but, or and yet).

Example: Swatting olives off the kitchen counter, dragging toilet paper streamers through the house, and terrorizing Jacques Cousteau, the parakeet, has consumed another of Buster's days.



correlative conjunctions
Correlative Conjunctions
  • Correlative Conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions which must have used together to form a simple sentence. The first conjunction emphasizes the meaning of the second.
  • However, the correlative conjunction is a little clearer than coordinating conjunction does.


Coordinating Conjunction Correlative Conjunction

She and I were there. Both she and I were there.



  • We use correlative conjunction to join words and groups of words which have equal grammatical units in sentence.

Example: Mr. Virak both acts and directs himself.

(Both Acts and directs are the verb in the same equal)

  • Both …and …: emphasize the equal of two unit


This garden is grown by both your parents and your younger sister.

  • Either… or…: emphasize the need to choose only one thing.


Either Davy or Davin goes with me.



  • Neither … nor … : emphasize the both units are negative


Sam neither knows nor cares what happened.

  • Not only … but also …: are used together to include two units and used to emphasize the equal importance of the second unit.

Example: Dany plays not only the guitar but also the violin.



  • Whether … or not…: emphasize that the first unit is more important that the second unit.

Example: She will come whether her husband is free or not.

  • Whether … or …: is a correlative conjunction that use together.

Example: I don’t care whether you go or stay.



  • As … as …: Positive comparison

Example: Your motorcycle is as new as mine.

  • So … as …: Consequence

Example: The symptoms of this disease were so unusual as to baffle even the specialist.

  • Such … as … : Consequence

Example: Such a person as you is worthless.

  • Such … that …: Result

Example: This is such a complicated problem that I

cannot understand.



punctuation guidelines2
Punctuation Guidelines:
  • We normally do not use commas between the pair conjunction when we connect two items such as pronouns, prepositional phrases, nouns, verb and so on.

Example: Michael grilled meat not only for Tiffany but also for Rocket.

  • However, when we connect two main clauses (sentences) with corrective conjunction, comma is needed.

Example: Not only did Michael grill a steak for Tiffany, but he also prepared a hot dog for Rocket.



subordinating conjunction
Subordinating Conjunction
  • Subordinating Conjunction (subordinator) is used to connect two complete ideas by making one idea become incomplete meaning as the subordinate clause follow the main clause to form a complex sentence.
  • The Subordinating Conjunctions are divided into several relationships :
  • Time relationships
  • Causal/reason relationships
  • Purpose relationship
  • Conditional relationships
  • Contrast relationships
  • Location relationships



time relationships
Time relationships

Time relationships are used to indicate the time that an event in the main clause takes place.

  • After: for later action

Ex: I feel asleep after I had lunch.

  • Before: for earlier action

Ex: Before I went to work, I gave my wife a kiss.

  • Since: to show the starting point of an action

Ex: He stopped working here since I have blame his children.

  • Until: used to limited action of action.

Ex: she is going to stay home until her mother arrives.



time relationships1
Time relationships
  • When: specific time of an action.

Ex: When she meets me, she always gives me a smile.

  • Whenever: for unspecific time

Ex: Whenever I go, I try to see something I’ve never seen before

  • While: to show something happen over a period of time.

Ex: I played football a lot while I was studying at high school.



causal reason relationships
Causal/reason relationships

Causal/reason relationships define the reason behind a statement or action given in the main clause. 

  • As: show a reason for action

Ex: As she has a lot of relative in Cambodia, it is easy to go for a walk.

  • Because: for a reason of action

Ex: I want to marry her because she is beautiful.

  • Since: a reason of action

Ex: Since he was to take his children to the zoo, he cannot come here.

  • Now that: reason for recent action

Ex: Now that I‘ve got a car, I don’t do as much exercise as I used to.



purpose relationships
Purpose relationships

Purpose relationships: To indicate the purpose action that happens related to the main clause.

  • In order that:

Ex: You play games in order that your health may improve.

  • So

Ex: Lisa has no much money so she cannot buy a great car.

  • So that: to make an possible action

Ex: She gets up early so that she can go to school in time.



conditional relationships
Conditional relationships
  • If: action dependent on the other action

Ex: If you cry for help, I will kill you.

  • Even if

Ex: I want to learn Korean even if I have no ability.

  • Unless: required action to avoid negative action

Ex: Dara cannot pass the exam unless he works hard.

  • Whether (or not): action on any condition

Ex: He still loves her whether or not she is rich.



contrast and concession relationships
Contrast and concession relationships

Contrast and concession relationships: Concessive clauses are used to concede a given point in an argument. 

  • Although: Use an illogical fact

Ex: Dalin is still beautiful although she is already 30 years old.

  • Even though: Use an illogical fact

Ex: He didn’t tell us even though he wanted to go with us.

  • Though: Use an illogical fact

Ex: Though she was afraid, she did not cry.

  • While: To show two differences action at the same time.

Ex: I read the book while you were drying your hair.



location relationships
Location relationships

Location relationships: Place clauses define the location of the object of the main clause. Place conjunctions include where and in which. They are generally placed following a main clause in order to define the location of the object of the main clause.

  • where: show the place of action

Ex: where you live, I will go to find you.

  • Whereas: choice of the place

Ex: whereas we got happy, you don’t forget it.

  • Wherever: To show unreal place

Ex: wherever you go, I will follow you.



punctuation guidelines3
Punctuation Guidelines
  • Pattern 1: If the dependent clause is placed at the beginning of a sentence, the dependent clause must be separated from the independent clause by a comma.

Example: After Jean goes to class, she goes to the library.

  • Pattern 2: If the dependent clause is placed at the end of the sentence after the independent clause, no comma is necessary.

Example: Jean goes to the library after she goes to class.




Pattern 3: If the dependent clause is inserted into the middle of the sentence, the clause acts as a parenthetical element and should have commas on both sides.

Example: On Monday, after she goes to class, Jean goes to the library.



conjunctive adverb
Conjunctive Adverb

Conjunctive adverbs join complete sentences (independent

clauses) and express a logical relationship between the ideas

in the sentences. Conjunction adverb cannot join single

words, phrases, and incomplete sentences (dependent


Types of Conjunctive Adverb:

  • Contrast
  • Addition
  • Cause / Result
  • Condition
  • Time Sequence



conjunctive adverb of contrast
Conjunctive Adverb of Contrast
  • However: However indicates contrast.

Example: Men smoke less than in the past; however, the

number of women who smoke is increasing.

  • However, nevertheless, still: These can show that the second sentence is going to give an unexpected result or be in contrast to the previous sentence.

Example: Studies show that cigarette smoking is dangerous

to one’s health; however (or nevertheless, still) millions of

people continue to smoke.



conjunctive adverb of addition
Conjunctive Adverb of Addition
  • Moreover, furthermore, in addition: The second sentence is going to give additional information. They add to the idea in the first sentence.

Example: Barbara’s professor encouraged her to go to

graduate school; moreover (or furthermore, in addition), he

nominated Barbara for a graduate


  • Besides: Besides often adds another reason for an action.

Example: Barbara majored in biology because she was

fascinated by the subject; besides, she knew it would help

her get a high-paying job in the future.

  • In fact: In fact adds emphasis to

the idea in the first sentence.

Example: Barbara passed all her examinations; in fact, she

graduated with honors.



conjunctive adverb of cause result
Conjunctive Adverb of Cause/Result
  • Therefore, consequently, as a result: These adverbs state the result of the idea in the first clause.

Example: I can’t speak French very well; therefore

(or consequently, as a result), I didn’t enjoy my trip

to France.

  • Thus: Thus often states a logical conclusion.

Example: Air fares are going down; thus, more and

more people are able to afford air travel.



conjunctive adverb of condition
Conjunctive Adverb of Condition


  • If the first sentence is affirmative, otherwise is similar in meaning to if one does not.

Example: We must find solutions to the problems of pollution; otherwise, we may all be wearing gas masks one day.

  • If the first sentence is negative, otherwise is similar in meaning to if one does.

Example: Don’t be absent from class; otherwise, you will miss the review.



conjunctive adverb of time sequence
Conjunctive Adverb of Time Sequence
  • Then, afterward, later: Then, afterward and later state the next action to the first sentence.

Example: The protesters gathered a few miles from the downtown. Then they marched toward City Hall.

The police asked the marchers to stop before they reached City Hall. Afterward the police began to arrest some of the demonstrators.

At first, I was going to join the demonstration; later, I changed my mind.



punctuation guidelines4
Punctuation Guidelines
  • Between two sentences: A semicolon is used at the end of the first sentence, and a comma follows the conjunctive adverb.

Example: I’m studying English in Denver; however,

my best friend is in Houston.

  • Beginning of the second sentence: A period ends the first sentence, a capital letter begins the second sentence, and a comma follows the conjunctive adverb.

Example: I’m studying English in Denver. However,

my best friend is in Houston.




Within the second sentence: The conjunctive adverb usually precedes the main verb or the auxiliary verb, preceded and followed by commas.

Example: I’m studying English in Denver. My best

friend, however, is in Houston.

  • End of the second sentence: The conjunctive adverb (However, instead and moreover) is preceded by a comma.

Example: I’m studying English in Denver. My best

friend is in Houston, however.



tip 1 identify types of conjunction
Tip 1: Identify Types of Conjunction
  • Coordinating Conjunction: It has only 7 conjunction.FANBOYS: For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet and So
  • Correlative Conjunction: It must contain pair of conjunction along with each other.

Both… And….

Not only…. But ….

  • Conjunctive Adverb: It must only link two independent clauses. Generally, we use a comma before conjunctive adverb.

I love reading books. Therefore, I get a lot of general knowledge.



tip 1 identify types of conjunction1
Tip 1: Identify Types of Conjunction

How About Subordinating Conjunction?



tip 2 conjunction vs preposition
Tip 2: Conjunction Vs Preposition

Since many words (before, after, until, for, than, since and so on) can function both conjunction and preposition, they may get you confusing.

  • Conjunction: We use conjunction to connect clauses. Normally, clause contains Subject and Verb.

Example: She will not load the software until she finishes the report.

  • Preposition: preposition must follow by noun.

Example: She will not load the software until Friday.