conjunction n.
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  1. Conjunction Presented by: HANG Sokharo LY Bela SENG Vibol 1

  2. Definition • A conjunction is a word that joins single words and groups of words. • We normally use conjunction to form simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence and compound-complex sentence. • Generally, there are 4 types of conjunctions: Coordinating Conjunction Subordinating Conjunction Correlative Conjunction Conjunctive Adverb Conjunction 2

  3. Coordinating Conjunction A coordinating conjunction (Coordinator) joins words or groups of words that have equal grammatical weight in a sentence. There are only seven coordinators, which you can remember by the phrase F A N B O Y S ND OR R UT O OR ET Conjunction 3

  4. Usage • And expresses addition. Example: Chorn is easy-going, and he is quite funny. • But expresses contrast. Example: Chorn is easy-going, but he sometimes loses his temper. • For expresses reason. Example: Chorn is easy-going, for he enjoys just about everything. • Or expresses choice. Example: Chorn is easy-going, or at least he seems that way. Conjunction 4

  5. Usage • So expresses result. Example: Chorn is easy-going, so many people like him. • Yet expresses contrast (More surprise than but). Example: Chorn is easy-going, yet he gets nervous about tests. • Nor is used to join two negative clauses. When nor begins the second clause, the auxiliary verb or the verb be is placed before the subject. A negative is not used in the second clause. Example: The box is not very big, nor is it very heavy. Conjunction 5

  6. Punctuation Guidelines • Pattern 1 — connecting two main clauses When you connect two main clauses with coordinating conjunction, use a comma. Example: While I am at work, my dog sleeps on the bed, and my cat naps in the bathtub. • Pattern 2 — connecting two items You can also use a coordinating conjunction (And, but, or and yet) to connect any two items. Example: My dog has too many fleas and too much hair. Conjunction 6

  7. Punctuation Guidelines • Pattern 3 — connecting three or more items in a series When you have three or more items in a series (phrases), you generally use a comma before the coordinating conjunction (And, but, or and yet). Example: Swatting olives off the kitchen counter, dragging toilet paper streamers through the house, and terrorizing Jacques Cousteau, the parakeet, has consumed another of Buster's days. Conjunction 7

  8. Correlative Conjunctions • Correlative Conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions which must have used together to form a simple sentence. The first conjunction emphasizes the meaning of the second. • However, the correlative conjunction is a little clearer than coordinating conjunction does. Example: Coordinating Conjunction Correlative Conjunction She and I were there. Both she and I were there. Conjunction 8

  9. USAGE • We use correlative conjunction to join words and groups of words which have equal grammatical units in sentence. Example: Mr. Virak both acts and directs himself. (Both Acts and directs are the verb in the same equal) • Both …and …: emphasize the equal of two unit Example: This garden is grown by both your parents and your younger sister. • Either… or…: emphasize the need to choose only one thing. Example: Either Davy or Davin goes with me. Conjunction 9

  10. USAGE • Neither … nor … : emphasize the both units are negative Example: Sam neither knows nor cares what happened. • Not only … but also …: are used together to include two units and used to emphasize the equal importance of the second unit. Example: Dany plays not only the guitar but also the violin. Conjunction 10

  11. USAGE • Whether … or not…: emphasize that the first unit is more important that the second unit. Example: She will come whether her husband is free or not. • Whether … or …: is a correlative conjunction that use together. Example: I don’t care whether you go or stay. Conjunction 11

  12. USAGE • As … as …: Positive comparison Example: Your motorcycle is as new as mine. • So … as …: Consequence Example: The symptoms of this disease were so unusual as to baffle even the specialist. • Such … as … : Consequence Example: Such a person as you is worthless. • Such … that …: Result Example: This is such a complicated problem that I cannot understand. Conjunction 12

  13. Punctuation Guidelines: • We normally do not use commas between the pair conjunction when we connect two items such as pronouns, prepositional phrases, nouns, verb and so on. Example: Michael grilled meat not only for Tiffany but also for Rocket. • However, when we connect two main clauses (sentences) with corrective conjunction, comma is needed. Example: Not only did Michael grill a steak for Tiffany, but he also prepared a hot dog for Rocket. Conjunction 13

  14. Subordinating Conjunction • Subordinating Conjunction (subordinator) is used to connect two complete ideas by making one idea become incomplete meaning as the subordinate clause follow the main clause to form a complex sentence. • The Subordinating Conjunctions are divided into several relationships : • Time relationships • Causal/reason relationships • Purpose relationship • Conditional relationships • Contrast relationships • Location relationships Conjunction 14

  15. Time relationships Time relationships are used to indicate the time that an event in the main clause takes place. • After: for later action Ex: I feel asleep after I had lunch. • Before: for earlier action Ex: Before I went to work, I gave my wife a kiss. • Since: to show the starting point of an action Ex: He stopped working here since I have blame his children. • Until: used to limited action of action. Ex: she is going to stay home until her mother arrives. Conjunction 15

  16. Time relationships • When: specific time of an action. Ex: When she meets me, she always gives me a smile. • Whenever: for unspecific time Ex: Whenever I go, I try to see something I’ve never seen before • While: to show something happen over a period of time. Ex: I played football a lot while I was studying at high school. Conjunction 16

  17. Causal/reason relationships Causal/reason relationships define the reason behind a statement or action given in the main clause.  • As: show a reason for action Ex: As she has a lot of relative in Cambodia, it is easy to go for a walk. • Because: for a reason of action Ex: I want to marry her because she is beautiful. • Since: a reason of action Ex: Since he was to take his children to the zoo, he cannot come here. • Now that: reason for recent action Ex: Now that I‘ve got a car, I don’t do as much exercise as I used to. Conjunction 17

  18. Purpose relationships Purpose relationships: To indicate the purpose action that happens related to the main clause. • In order that: Ex: You play games in order that your health may improve. • So Ex: Lisa has no much money so she cannot buy a great car. • So that: to make an possible action Ex: She gets up early so that she can go to school in time. Conjunction 18

  19. Conditional relationships • If: action dependent on the other action Ex: If you cry for help, I will kill you. • Even if Ex: I want to learn Korean even if I have no ability. • Unless: required action to avoid negative action Ex: Dara cannot pass the exam unless he works hard. • Whether (or not): action on any condition Ex: He still loves her whether or not she is rich. Conjunction 19

  20. Contrast and concession relationships Contrast and concession relationships: Concessive clauses are used to concede a given point in an argument.  • Although: Use an illogical fact Ex: Dalin is still beautiful although she is already 30 years old. • Even though: Use an illogical fact Ex: He didn’t tell us even though he wanted to go with us. • Though: Use an illogical fact Ex: Though she was afraid, she did not cry. • While: To show two differences action at the same time. Ex: I read the book while you were drying your hair. Conjunction 20

  21. Location relationships Location relationships: Place clauses define the location of the object of the main clause. Place conjunctions include where and in which. They are generally placed following a main clause in order to define the location of the object of the main clause. • where: show the place of action Ex: where you live, I will go to find you. • Whereas: choice of the place Ex: whereas we got happy, you don’t forget it. • Wherever: To show unreal place Ex: wherever you go, I will follow you. Conjunction 21

  22. Punctuation Guidelines • Pattern 1: If the dependent clause is placed at the beginning of a sentence, the dependent clause must be separated from the independent clause by a comma. Example: After Jean goes to class, she goes to the library. • Pattern 2: If the dependent clause is placed at the end of the sentence after the independent clause, no comma is necessary. Example: Jean goes to the library after she goes to class. Conjunction 22

  23. Pattern 3: If the dependent clause is inserted into the middle of the sentence, the clause acts as a parenthetical element and should have commas on both sides. Example: On Monday, after she goes to class, Jean goes to the library. Conjunction 23

  24. Conjunctive Adverb Conjunctive adverbs join complete sentences (independent clauses) and express a logical relationship between the ideas in the sentences. Conjunction adverb cannot join single words, phrases, and incomplete sentences (dependent clauses). Types of Conjunctive Adverb: • Contrast • Addition • Cause / Result • Condition • Time Sequence Conjunction 24

  25. Conjunctive Adverb of Contrast • However: However indicates contrast. Example: Men smoke less than in the past; however, the number of women who smoke is increasing. • However, nevertheless, still: These can show that the second sentence is going to give an unexpected result or be in contrast to the previous sentence. Example: Studies show that cigarette smoking is dangerous to one’s health; however (or nevertheless, still) millions of people continue to smoke. Conjunction 25

  26. Conjunctive Adverb of Addition • Moreover, furthermore, in addition: The second sentence is going to give additional information. They add to the idea in the first sentence. Example: Barbara’s professor encouraged her to go to graduate school; moreover (or furthermore, in addition), he nominated Barbara for a graduate scholarship. • Besides: Besides often adds another reason for an action. Example: Barbara majored in biology because she was fascinated by the subject; besides, she knew it would help her get a high-paying job in the future. • In fact: In fact adds emphasis to the idea in the first sentence. Example: Barbara passed all her examinations; in fact, she graduated with honors. Conjunction 26

  27. Conjunctive Adverb of Cause/Result • Therefore, consequently, as a result: These adverbs state the result of the idea in the first clause. Example: I can’t speak French very well; therefore (or consequently, as a result), I didn’t enjoy my trip to France. • Thus: Thus often states a logical conclusion. Example: Air fares are going down; thus, more and more people are able to afford air travel. Conjunction 27

  28. Conjunctive Adverb of Condition Otherwise: • If the first sentence is affirmative, otherwise is similar in meaning to if one does not. Example: We must find solutions to the problems of pollution; otherwise, we may all be wearing gas masks one day. • If the first sentence is negative, otherwise is similar in meaning to if one does. Example: Don’t be absent from class; otherwise, you will miss the review. Conjunction 28

  29. Conjunctive Adverb of Time Sequence • Then, afterward, later: Then, afterward and later state the next action to the first sentence. Example: The protesters gathered a few miles from the downtown. Then they marched toward City Hall. The police asked the marchers to stop before they reached City Hall. Afterward the police began to arrest some of the demonstrators. At first, I was going to join the demonstration; later, I changed my mind. Conjunction 29

  30. Punctuation Guidelines • Between two sentences: A semicolon is used at the end of the first sentence, and a comma follows the conjunctive adverb. Example: I’m studying English in Denver; however, my best friend is in Houston. • Beginning of the second sentence: A period ends the first sentence, a capital letter begins the second sentence, and a comma follows the conjunctive adverb. Example: I’m studying English in Denver. However, my best friend is in Houston. Conjunction 30

  31. Within the second sentence: The conjunctive adverb usually precedes the main verb or the auxiliary verb, preceded and followed by commas. Example: I’m studying English in Denver. My best friend, however, is in Houston. • End of the second sentence: The conjunctive adverb (However, instead and moreover) is preceded by a comma. Example: I’m studying English in Denver. My best friend is in Houston, however. Conjunction 31

  32. Tip 1: Identify Types of Conjunction • Coordinating Conjunction: It has only 7 conjunction.FANBOYS: For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet and So • Correlative Conjunction: It must contain pair of conjunction along with each other. Both… And…. Not only…. But …. • Conjunctive Adverb: It must only link two independent clauses. Generally, we use a comma before conjunctive adverb. I love reading books. Therefore, I get a lot of general knowledge. Conjunction 32

  33. Tip 1: Identify Types of Conjunction How About Subordinating Conjunction? Conjunction 33

  34. Tip 2: Conjunction Vs Preposition Since many words (before, after, until, for, than, since and so on) can function both conjunction and preposition, they may get you confusing. • Conjunction: We use conjunction to connect clauses. Normally, clause contains Subject and Verb. Example: She will not load the software until she finishes the report. • Preposition: preposition must follow by noun. Example: She will not load the software until Friday. Conjunction 34