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Chapter 16, Section 1 The Two Sides
Terms to Know • Border States: the states between the North and the South that were divided over whether to stay in the Union or join the Confederacy. • Blockade: cutoff an area by means of troops or warships to stop supplies; to close off a country’s ports • Rebel: Confederate soldier, so called because of opposition to the established government • Yankee: Union soldier • Offensive: position of attacking or the attack itself
Choosing Sides-Border States • The Confederacy chose Richmond, VA as their nation’s capital • The border states were Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland and Delaware • Losing the border states would seriously damage the North because of their strategic locations • Maryland was the most important because vital railroad lines passed through there
Remaining with the Union • Lincoln suspended some constitutional rights and used his power to arrest people who supported secession • The border states ended up staying with the Union
A Secession from the South • Virginia, a Confederate state, became divided over the issue of secession • 48 counties in Virginia seceded from the state and formed West Virginia to join the Union
Comparing North and South • North Advantages: larger population, more industry, and more abundant resources, better banking system, more ships and navy, and a larder and more efficient railway network • South Advantages: Strong support of its white population, fighting in familiar territory, strong tradition of military training, president Jefferson Davis was a West Point graduate and experienced soldier.
Comparing North and South • North disadvantages: The South was hostile and the fighting would be done on their land. Their cause resembled the cause of the colonists in the American Revolution. • South disadvantages: smaller population, few factories to manufacture weapons and other supplies, produced less than half as much food as the North, less than half the miles of railroad tracks to carry supplies. The individual states refused to give the Confederacy much power.
War Aims and Strategy • Goal of the North: Bring the states back to the Union. • Union Plan: • 1. The North would blockade Southern ports. • 2. The Union would gain control of the Mississippi River. • 3. The North would capture Richmond, VA., the Confederate capital.
War Aims and Strategy • Goal of the South: To be recognized as an independent nation. • The South planned to defend its homeland, holding on to as much territory as possible until the North grew tired of fighting. • They also hoped Britain and France would help them.
American Against American • The leaders and fighters from the North and South were fighting against each other. • This put family members against each other on the battlefield. • Brother vs. Brother
Who were the Soldiers? • Average age of recruit: 25 years old • 40% were 21 or younger • The Union did not permit African Americans to join at first but they did serve later. • By the summer of 1861, the Confederate army had about 112,000 soldiers (Rebels) and the Union had about 187,000 soldiers (Yankees).
False Hopes • Both sides thought they would win the war quickly. • Northern general William Tecumseh Sherman predicted, “I think it is to be a long war- very long- much longer than any politician thinks.”
Questions-Ticket Out Door • Why were the border states important to the North? • What do you think was the South’s greatest advantage? Explain.