Chapter 16 Section 1 Earth’s Atmosphere - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 16 Section 1 Earth’s Atmosphere

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Chapter 16 Section 1 Earth’s Atmosphere

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  1. Chapter 16 Section 1 Earth’s Atmosphere

  2. - a thin layer of air that forms a protective covering around the planet 1. Earth’s atmosphere • keeps day cool and nights warm • protects life-forms from some of the Sun’s harmful rays • start = Earth’s surface • end = outer space - made of nitrogen and carbon dioxide

  3. 2. the ozone layer - formed when living organisms released oxygen into the atmosphere - protects Earth from Sun’s harmful rays formed in upper atmosphere - allowed green plants to flourish and release more oxygen • nitrogen 78% • oxygen 21% • water vapor- up to 4% • argon 0.93% • carbon dioxide 0.03% 3. What gases make up the atmosphere?

  4. 4. human effect on the atmosphere • car exhaust mixes with chemicals and form smog • burning fuel releases carbon dioxide 5. solids in the atmosphere • dust carried by wind • salt from ocean spray • pollen from plants 6. liquid droplets in the atmosphere - liquid from erupting volcanoes

  5. 7. What are the 5 layers of the atmosphere? troposphere stratosphere mesosphere thermosphere exosphere

  6. Mesosphere: • top of stratosphere to 85 km • shooting stars happen here • temperatures decrease as you get higher • many meteors disintegrate here • Stratosphere: • extends from 10- 50 km • contains ozone layer • temperatures are higher in the upper portion because of ozone molecules • weather balloons float here • Troposphere: • - 99% of water vapor - warmed by heat from Earth’s surface • 75% of atmospheric gases - most clouds and weather form here • eat, play, and, live here • rain, snow, and clouds • extends up to 10 km Earth’s Surface

  7. Outer Space • Exosphere: • - space shuttle orbits here • few air molecules here • high temperatures • 500 km to outer space • Thermosphere: • “hot layer” • thickest layer • 85 – 500 km • high temperatures because first layers to receive Sun’s rays • contains ionosphere- causes radio waves to bounce back to Earth • aurora borealis located here (northern lights)

  8. 1. ionosphere • In the mesosphere and thermosphere • layer of electrically charged particles • allows radio waves to travel (better/farther at night) 2. How does the space shuttle maneuver in the exosphere? - Uses bursts from small rocket thrusters 3. pressure - force exerted on an area 4. Is there more pressure closer to Earth or near the top of the atmosphere? Why? - closer to Earth’s surface because the molecules are closer together and causes the air to be dense 5. Why is it harder to breathe in high mountains? - there are fewer molecules of air higher up

  9. 6. Where does Earth’s energy come from? - the sun 7. Why do the different layers of the atmosphere have different temperatures? - some layers easily absorb the Sun’s energy and some do not 8. What happens to air temperature as you climb higher? - decreases about 6.5° C for every kilometer you climb