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English in the World. Fernando Trujillo. Language Diffusion.

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english in the world

English in the World

Fernando Trujillo

language diffusion
Language Diffusion
  • During the period of Modern English (from XVII), English has extended to be used by 670 million people with a native or native-like command of English, increasing to approximately 1,200–1,500 million if the criterion of reasonable competence is adopted (Crystal, 1997, English as a global language).
the british isles
The British Isles
  • English in Britain has co-existed o exists together with (or sometimes against):
    • Irish, Scottish Gaelic,Manx , British , Welsh, Cornish , Cumbric , Pictish , Latin , Scots, Norse and Norn , Flemish in Wales , Anglo-Norman , Romani and some other Community Languages.
the british isles main differences among varieties
The British Isles: main differences among varieties
  • use of vowel // (blood vs. good).
  • use of // y // (pat vs. path).
  • use of // e // (city ending in one of them).
  • use of //.
  • use of // y // (to contrast pull vs. pool and cot vs. caught).
  • use of the glottal stop //.
  • dissappearance of // before // y //, among others.
welsh english
Welsh English
  • Words such as dance, sample, grant, branch are pronounced with /  / instead of //.
  • //-// is neutralized: rubber as //.
  • Non-rhotic with linking and intrusive /r/.
  • Strong aspirarion of voiceless plosives.
  • // is clear in all contexts.
scottish english
Scottish English
  • Rhotic variety
  • //-// is neutralized in favour of //: palm = Pam.
  • //-// is neutralized in favour of //: pool = pull.
  • //-// is neutralized:cot = caught.
  • Scottish Vowel Length Rule:vowels are longer before //, //, // y // and in final position.
  • Loss of aspiration of voiceless plosives.
  • [] instead of // in non-initial position.
  • // dark in all positions.
irish english
Irish English
  • Rhotic variety.
  • clear //.
  • // between vowels as [].
  • Words such as dance, sample, grant, branch are pronounced with /  / instead of //.
  • Contrasts //-// y //-// are lost in favour of // y //.
australian english
Australian English
  • // instead of // in very, and // instead of // in non-stressed syllables.
  • use of // and // in laugh and dance.
  • use of open // in final position: ever as // .
  • non-rhotic variety, with linking and intrusive /r/.
  • // between vowels turns into // .
  • use of the glottal stop //.
  • AusEng // is darker than RP.
new zealand english
New Zealand English
  • // is a central phoneme close to //.
  • // realized as //.
  • words such as dance, sample, grant, branch are pronounced with // instead of //.
  • neutralization of // y // (beer and bear).
  • neutralization of // y // before // (doll and dole).
  • use of dark // in all contexts.
  • // between vowels produced as [].
  • non-rhotic with linking and intrusive /r/.
south african english
South African English
  • words such as dance, sample, grant, branch are pronounced with // instead of //.
  • a tendency towards monophthong.
  • // instead of // in very, and // instead of // in non-stressed syllables.
  • loss of aspiration of voiceless plosives.
  • // between vowels produced as [].
  • non-rhotic but no linking or intrusive /r/.
us english southern
US English: Southern
  • Varieties
    • Lower Southern: non-rhotic
    • Inland Southern: rhotic
  • offglide of //, //, // towards // in stressed syllables.
  • diphthong // turns into [].
  • diphthongs // y // have an open first element.
  • // and // are neutralized before nasals: pin y pen.
us english general american
US English: General American
  • Varieties:
    • Central Eastern (=standard),
    • Western,
    • Midland and
    • Northern.
  • Central Eastern
    • Rhotic
    • // between vowels produced as [].
    • Use of dark // in all contexts.
    • // instead of // in very
  • Northern Variety
    • “Northern Cities Chain Shift”:
      • // to the front.
      • // closer to [],
      • // more central close to //
us english north eastern
US English: North Eastern
  • Varieties:
    • Eastern New England and New York City.
  • Eastern New England
    • The most similar USEng variety to EngEng.
    • Non-rhotic, linking and intrusive /r/
    • Use of // and //.
  • New York City
    • Non-rhotic with linking and intrusive /r/.
    • Use of vowels // and //.
    • // becomes //.
    • // y // become [] y [].
canadian english
Canadian English
  • Similar to Western US variety.
  • The “Canadian Rising”: before voiceless consonants, diphthongs // y // have centralized allophones on the first element of the diphthong: night time as // and out loud as //.
  • The difference between cot and caught is neutralized.
african english
African English
  • Non-rhotic
  • Tendency to reduce consonant clusters: last as //.
  • Tendency to devoice final voiced consontants, as proud //.
  • Loss of vowel sounds (from 10 to 7).
indian english
Indian English
  • Non-rhotic.
  • Simplification of vowel sounds.
  • Loss of aspiration of voiceless plosives.
  • In some varieties, neutralization of // y //, // y //, // y //, // y //, // y //.