STATUS OF ENGLISH IN THE WORLD: TRIPARTITION. The 3 circles of English. The US linguist Braj Kachru has suggested that we think of the spread of English around the world as 3 concentric circles. In the inner circle we find people and countries that have English as a native language.
Despite its name, this model is not circular or concentric, but a set of three contiguous ovals .
The smaller unlabelled ovals belong presumably to the past
-> as „traditional, cultural & linguistic bases“
->English gained importance in administration
ENGLISH IN AFRICA ENGLISH IN ASIA
Indian English (Indlish) Singaporean English (Singlish) Malaysian English
PIDGINS AND CREOLES
„Any language variety of English including those developed by communities in which English was not indigenous in modern history.“
Can you guess what language this is?
These lines are taken from a famous comic strip in Papua New Guinea:
'If you eat plenty of peanuts, you will come up strong like the phantom.''Phantom, you are a true friend of mine. Are you able to help me now?'Phantom, where did he go?'
Portuguese-based creoles (example Angolar Creole Portuguese)
Spanish-based creoles (Papiamentu Creole Spanish)
Dutch-based creoles (Negerhollands Creole Dutch)
French-based creoles (Haitian Creole French)
English-based Atlantic creoles (Jamaican Creole English)
English-based Pacific pidgins and creoles (Tok Pisin)
Pidgins and creoles based on other languages (Nubi Creole Arabic)
(tok means "word" or "speech" as in "talk", pisin means "pidgin") is the Creole spoken in northern mainland Papua New Guinea
Like many pidgins and creoles, has a far simpler phonology than the superstrate language. It has 16 consonants and 5 vowels.
e.g. English hand becomes Tok Pisin han
Repetition is very common in Tok Pisin. Sometimes it is used as a method of derivation; sometimes words just have it. Some words are distinguished only by reduplication: sip "ship", sipsip "sheep".
Jamaican Standard and Jamaican Creole exist side by side in the island in a typical diglossic pattern.
Creole is used by most people for everyday, informal situations - it's the language most Jamaicans use at home and are most familiar with (and is closest to their hearts); it's also the language of most local popular music and Dub poetry.
Standard, on the other hand, is the language of education, high culture, government, the media and official/formal communications. It's also the native language of a small minority of Jamaicans (typically upper class and upper/traditional middle class).
Books, magazines, and newspapers written in English are available in many countries around the world. English is also the most commonly used language in the sciences.
Is English so powerfulbecause North Americansspeakit?
Is English so powerfulbecauseitsgrammaris easy?
Is English so powerfulbecauseof the British Empire?
Whatabout the Internet?
What do youthink the future willbe?
Youhave ten minutestosay:
WHAT YOU MEAN BY GLOBAL LANGUAGE;
WHAT YOUR VIEW IS ABOUT IT;
THE REASONS WHY YOU WANT TO STUDY THIS LANGUAGE
of its people.