Account for the cause of ‘underdevelopment’ in Cambodia. Justify your answer by referring to relevant examples and literature. Name: Kingdom of Cambodia Cambodia Profile of Least Development Country(LDC) Gross NationalIncome(GNI)per capita Place: South East Asia Human AssetsIndex (HAI) Economic Vulnerability Index (EVI) Population 14.7Million Total land area 1810 Thousand Km² Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (2016) Cambodia. Tokyo: Available from: https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/area/cambodia/data.html#section1(Accessed: 23/08/2018). UN Economic Analysis & Policy Division (2018) LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRY CATEGORY: CAMBODIA PROFILE. New York: Available from: https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/least-developed-country-category-cambodia.html(Accessed: 23/08/2018).
Section 1. The war and Cambodia • The war led to considerable loss of life, human assets and left negative legacies for future development 1.7 Million Damaged the economy Destroyed social services Key Figures How those it affects/What does it means 0.563 143rd /188 45:1 101st /108 Low level of human development 20 people/ a year ＄340 Million Government still have to spendmoney,timeandmanpowerto landmines Yale university (2018) Cambodian Genocide Program. Connecticut: Available from: https://gsp.yale.edu/case-studies/cambodian-genocide-program(Accessed: 15/08/2018).UNDP (2016) Human Development Index (HDI). New York: Available from: http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-index-hdi(Accessed: 05/08/2018) UNDP (2016) Pupil-teacher ratio, primary school (number of pupils per teacher). New York: Available from: http://hdr.undp.org/en/indicators/46206(Accessed: 05/08/2018)MINE ACTION REVIEW (2017) CLEARING THE MINES 2017. London: Available from: http://www.mineactionreview.org/assets/downloads/Clearing-the-Mines-2017.pdf(Accessed: 15/08/2018)
Section 2. The land issue in Cambodia • Accessibility of lands is crucial for people who are engaging in agriculture however many people in Cambodia suffer from landlessness. Why land accessibility is important for Cambodian? 30.5% GDP composition ratio Accessibility of lands is important for both citizens and the nation 26.7% Work forces What is happening in Cambodia? Landlessness400,000 people have been affected by land grabbing (2003-2011) KR policies Deleted all record of land ownership Economic LandConcession In 2011, 54.9% of arable land was leased to private companies 300 villagers were destroyed their land by one ELC Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (2016) Cambodia. Tokyo: Available from: https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/area/cambodia/data.html#section1(Accessed: 23/08/2018) THE WORLD BANK (2017) Employment in agriculture (% of total employment) (modeled ILO estimate). Washington D.C.: Available from: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS?locations=KH(Accessed: 16 August 2018) LICADHO (2009) Land Grabbing & Poverty in Cambodia: The Myth of Develoopment. Phnom Penh:LICADHO Available from: http://www.licadho-cambodia.org/reports/files/134LICADHOREportMythofDevelopment2009Eng.pdf(Accessed: 20 August 2018)Pung, K. (2011) Land Issues in Cambodia. Phnom Penh: Available from: https://www.nachdenkseiten.de/upload/pdf/2011-LICADHO_Land_Dispute_Presentation.pdf(Accessed: 05/08/2018)
Section 3. Health problems in Cambodia • The health system in Cambodia has performed poorly compared to other countries. Several indicatorsthat show it is still underdeveloped in health services CIA (2017) Cambodia. Virginia: Available from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cb.html(Accessed: 15/08/2018) Phanphairoj, K & Loa, R. (2017) 'Comparison of the Determinants of the Health Service System and the Health Status of the People in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)', Current Psychiatry Reviews, 13(4), pp. 246-251 The Kingdom of Cambodia, National Institute of Statistics, Directorate General for Health. (2011) Demographic and Health Survey. Phnom Penh: National Institute of Statistics, Directorate General for Health.