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China

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  1. China

  2. Farming • Rivers: Huang He & Chang Jiang • Fertile soil for farming; fish; animals to hunt • Farming – 7000 B.C. • Began domesticating animals: pigs and sheep • Population grew

  3. Characteristics of Civilization • Food surplus • Specialization of skills • Government • Social Classes • Religion • Cities • Writing • Arts/Architecture • Public works

  4. Civilization Develops • Settlements – villages – large towns • Walls around towns… keep out flood waters and invaders

  5. Earliest Cultures • Little known about these • Sanxindui & Hongshon • Eventually absorbed into other cultures • 3000 B.C. – potters wheel, pottery, water wells • Increased population = spread of towns

  6. Archeological Findings Few artifacts…

  7. Tombs in Burial Sites • Tombs are filled with objects and food… suggests belief in afterlife • Some graves had more items than others… suggests a social order had developed • Some had beautiful jewelry and objects out of jade (hard gemstone) suggests specialization and wealth

  8. Artifacts showed Chinese society continued to grow more complex!

  9. Xia Dynasty

  10. Xia Dynasty • China’s first dynasty • 2200 B.C. • Cut off from other civilizations • Founder: Yu the Great • Much of what we know comes from legends

  11. Beginning of 1st Dynasty - Legend • Terrible floods struck China • Yu dug channels to drain water to the ocean • Took 10 years • Yu – created major waterways of Northern China

  12. Fact or Fiction? Early rulers were important to ancient Chinese because… • Showed how kings helped people solve problems by working together • Explained geography and the impact it had on people’s lives

  13. Shang Dynasty

  14. The Shang Dynasty • 1st evidence of a dynasty • 1500’s B.C. • Huang He River Valley • Moved capitals several times… -avoid floods -attack by enemies

  15. Shang Social Order • City was arranged by social class • City home of wealthy, learned, & skilled • Most people did not live in the city • King – center of political & religious life • Nobles

  16. Nobles • advisors or lesser government & religious leaders • royal family • owned much land • passed wealth & power on to sons • Large homes in city

  17. Shang Nobles • Under king • nobles – people of high rank in a kingdom • Prepared for war • Fought against one another over land • United in times of rebellion from people who refused Shang rule

  18. Shang Social Order • King – center of political & religious life • Nobles • Warrior leaders • Artisans – lived in groups based on what they made (outside city walls) • Farmers – long hours; little money; heavily taxed • Slaves – important source of labor

  19. The Shang Advancements

  20. Chinese Writing • 1st writing system • More than 2000 symbols to express words or ideas • Chinese writing based on writing of Shang • Archeological evidence: Oracle Bones

  21. Crack Readers • Oracles – predictors of the future • Turtle shells and cattle bones

  22. Oracle Bones • Priest carved questions about the future on bones • Heated; Cracked • Priest believed they could “read” these cracks to predict the future

  23. Other Achievements • Bronze containers • Jade – axes, knives, ornaments • Military – chariots, bows, bronze body armor • Astrology – lunar calendar

  24. Shang Religion • Worshipped spirits (supernatural beings) • Spirits in mountains, rivers, & seas • Must please spirits

  25. Shang Ancestors • Ancestors – those from whom one is descended • Influenced fortunes • Respect for family

  26. Decline of the Shang • Gap between rich and poor • No loyalty towards each other

  27. End of the Shang • 1122 B.C. • Zhou invaded Shang • Shang were not united and could not hold off invaders • Civilization came to an end

  28. Zhou Dynasty

  29. Zhou Dynasty • 1100s B.C. • Lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history • Claimed to have the Mandate of Heaven

  30. Mandate of Heaven • Heaven gave power to king / leader and no one ruled without heaven’s permission • Bad king = heaven supported a new leader

  31. Zhou vs Shang • West of Shang • Offered protection of Shang’s western border • Believed Shang leaders became corrupt • Used Mandate of Heaven to justify rebellion against the Shang • Conquered Shang – 1122 B.C. • Expanded to Chang Jiang

  32. Zhou Political Order • Brought order to China • Granted land in exchange for… -loyalty -military support -other services

  33. Zhou Social Order • King • Lords (people of high rank) -land was given by kings -paid taxes and provided soldiers • Peasants – farmers with small farms; farmed additional land for nobles/lord

  34. Changes in Political Order • Lords passed rule to sons • Sons less loyal to king • Local rulers gained more power • Many refused to fight against invasions • Rejected the authority of the king

  35. Legend - Decline of the Zhou • King lit warning fires to entertain friend • Armies rushed to defend • Real attack – no one came

  36. Decline of Zhou Dynasty • 771 B.C. • Zhou were invaded • Zhou lost battle but survived

  37. Warring States Period • 481 B.C. • A time of many civil wars • Lords began fighting each other • Lasted more than 200 years • Fighting – brutal & cruel; fighting for territory not honor

  38. Internal Problems for the Zhou • Changes in Chinese family structure (way something is set up or organized) • Family had been foundation of life in China

  39. Large families formed powerful groups • Loyalty weakened in small families • Eventually… • Families broke apart & became rivals • Sons plotted against each other & their fathers over inheritances

  40. Result - Warring States Period • China lacked a strong central government to stop power struggles within ruling class • Chinese society fell into a period of disorder