Leviticus LAW OF THE PRIESTS- TORAH KOHANIM 5 classes of sacrifice or regulation in first 7 chapters. 1.Burnt Offering- whole victim consumed entire self-surrender on part of officiate. 2. Meat Offering- loyal acknowledgement of God’s Sovereignty.
Five Classes of Sacrifice 3. Sin Offering- Acknowledgement of wrath on part of the one to whom offering is made (God). Without recognition of wrath of God Trespass offering means nothing. 4. Trespass offering- satisfaction for sin 5. Peace Offering- union and communion between the offered and Him to whom the offering is made (God).
Animals Sacrificed Young Unblemished bull Young unblemished Ram Young unblemished He-Goat Young unblemished turtle-dove Young unblemished pigeon. Young unblemished lamb Others all without blemish- even high priest unblemished. It cost the people monetarily to sacrifice like this and it was in addition to their tithe- note that tithing was a part of the law of Moses and not binding on us today.
Outline of Leviticus 1-7 Laws concerning sacrifice 8-10 Mediatorship of the priest. 11-15 unclean things (bottom feeders, swine) 16 Day of Atonement 17 Use of blood 18-26 God-pleasing conduct 18-20 Laws dealing with marriage 21-22 true character of priests 23-24 consecration of seasons and life and death 25 Sabbath and Jubilee 26 Offering of blessing and cursing
1-10 God’s Provision For Sin Sacrifices- Burnt offering, meal offering, peace offering, sin offering, trespass offering 8-10 Priesthood ordinances. Precepts for Separation- 11-24 11-20 Holy nation; 11-15 clean and unclean (law of purity); 16-17 Day of atonement; 18-20 laws of separation; 21-22 holiness of priesthood; 23-24 Holy days feasts of Lord
God’s Assurances of Success 25-27 Sabbath- 25 Importance of Obedience (26) Seriousness of Vows (27)- if you vow a vow do not defer keeping it. Leviticus is a book of sacrifice and blood. Many today want bloodless religion and salvation without sacrifice.
Leviticus 16- Key to the Book Yom Kippur- Day of Atonement (v. 30) 45 times in book the word “atonement” Ps. 51:16,17; Heb. 10:1-18 Vs. 20-28- the scapegoat Celebration of the covering of national sins by offering of two goats unto God. One killed and the other driven from the camp into the wilderness. The priest enters the holy of holies to offer the blood of the slain goat to God. When he came out the people knew their sins were covered for another year. See Heb. 9:14- Christ- once offered. Shed blood required
Practical Lessons Of Leviticus Awfulness of Sin- sin is hateful toward God Holiness of God- 11:44- clean and unclean Graciousness of God- Provides way of forgiveness. 13- Character of sin- v. 3- deeper than the skin; v.7- it spreads; 44-46- it defiles; 46- it isolates; 52- destined things for the fire 21:1-9- conduct of the priests 10-15- H.Priest
Practical Lessons of Leviticus 22:17-33- Perfect Sacrifice- the Cost of sin 23- religious year opened with Passover celebration (first fruits to God). Feast of unleavened bread; Pentecost- 50 days after Passover. 7th month- 3 Feasts- Trumpets (23:23-25); Day of atonement (23:26-32); Feast of tabernacles (live in a booth for 7 days to remind of God’s promise and protection in the wilderness. 25:1-7; 18-22- Sabbatic year- land rests Deut. 15:1-11- all debts remitted at end of 7th year. 25:8-17; 23-24- Year of Jubilee; 25:25-55- Care of poor.
Leviticus Tidbits Exodus ends with the erection of the Tabernacle. Leviticus is given to show the law given to the nation (nations must have laws).Fulfillment of Ex. 19:6- “a kingdom of priests and a holy nation”. Four themes- 1. The presence of God in Israelite worship. The repetition of the phrase “before the Lord” and “unto the Lord.” 1:9,13,17).
Second Theme Concept of Holiness- “be holy for I am holy” 11:44,45; 19:2; 20:28. term holy and sanctified appears 152 times in the book. Sacrifice- 40 times Priest- 190 times Blood- 85 times Atonement- 45 times Profane- 14 times Clean- about 74 times – unclean- 132 times
Third & Fourth Theme The Role of Sacrifice- Heb. 9:22- “almost all things are by the law purged with blood; and w/o the shedding of blood is no remission.” The first 17 chapters explain procedures for proper, acceptable sacrifice.- JESUS IS OUR SACRIFICE FOR SIN TODAY Heb 7:27-Who needeth not daily, as those high priests, to offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for the people's: for this he did once, when he offered up himself.
Third & Fourth Theme Heb 9:26- For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. Heb 10:12- But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God;
Third & Fourth Theme 4TH- Covenant explains how covenant worship should be conducted (1-17) how covenant people should behave(18-25) closes w/blessings and cursings (26). Last verse- “these are the statutes and judgments and laws…”( v. 46). LAW WAS GIVEN TO BE OBEYED. SO IT IS TODAY WITH THE NEW LAW. We must be obedient in order to escape the curses (Rev. 22).
Nadab and Abihu What did they do wrong? Lev 10:1-2- And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took either of them his censer, and put fire therein, and put incense thereon, and offered strange fire before the Lord, which he commanded them not. And there went out fire from the Lord, and devoured them, and they died before the Lord. See Lev. 16:12- And he shall take a censer full of burning coals of fire from off the altar before the Lord, and his hands full of sweet incense beaten small, and bring it within the vail:
Nadab and Abihu Are we priests today? See 1 Peter 2:5,9- Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ…But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light: What are the lessons we learn from the sin of Nadab and Abihu? Does it matter to God how we do something or just that we “get it done”?
The Book Of Numbers The book takes its name from the two numberings of the men of war in chapters 1-4 and 26-27. The first census was made the secondyearafter the nation had left Egypt, and the second was made thirty-eight years later when the new generation was about to enter Canaan. These numberings were not of the entire nation, but only of the men able to fight. The first census revealed that there were 603,550 available men; the second, that there were 601,730.
The Book Of Numbers Compare this to the total number of armed forces in the United States today- Approximately 1.8 million total personnel are currently on active duty in the military with an additional 860,000 personnel in the seven reserve components (456,000 of which are in the Army and Air National Guard).
Theme Of Numbers Numbers is the wilderness book of the OT. It describes the failure of the nation at Kadesh-Barnea and their wanderings in the wilderness until the unbelieving older generation died. Someone has described Israel's wilderness wanderings as "the longest funeral march in history."
Theme Of Numbers Only Caleb and Joshua of the older generation and those 20 years old or younger were permitted to enter Canaan. Caleb and Joshua had trusted God and opposed the decision of the nation to turn back at Kadesh-Barnea. Even Moses was forbidden to go into the Promised Land because of his sin when he smote the rock instead of speaking to it ( it makes a difference whether we do exactly what God says or not).
Spiritual Lesson For Us Today Numbers has an important spiritual lesson for Christians today, as explained in Heb 3-4 and 1 Cor 10:1-15. God honors faith and punishes unbelief. At the root of all of Israel's sins in the wilderness was unbelief: they did not trust God's Word. At Kadesh-Barnea they doubted God's Word and failed to enter into their inheritance. Instead of claiming Canaan by faith, they wandered in the wilderness in unbelief.
Hebrews 3:1-4:10 Therefore, holy brothers, who share in the heavenly calling, fix your thoughts on Jesus, the apostle and high priest whom we confess. He was faithful to the one who appointed him, just as Moses was faithful in all God's house. Jesus has been found worthy of greater honor than Moses, just as the builder of a house has greater honor than the house itself. For every house is built by someone, but God is the builder of everything. Moses was faithful as a servant in all God's house, testifying to what would be said in the future. But Christ is faithful as a son over God's house.
Hebrews 3:1-4:10 And we are his house, if we hold on to our courage and the hope of which we boast. So, as the Holy Spirit says: Today, if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts as you did in the rebellion, during the time of testing in the desert, where your fathers tested and tried me and for forty years saw what I did. That is why I was angry with that generation, and I said, 'Their hearts are always going astray, and they have not known my ways.' So I declared on oath in my anger, 'They shall never enter my rest.'“ See to it, brothers, that none of you has a sinful, unbelieving heart that turns away from the living God.
Hebrews 3:1-4:10 But encourage one another daily, as long as it is called Today, so that none of you may be hardened by sin's deceitfulness. We have come to share in Christ if we hold firmly till the end the confidence we had at first. As has just been said: "Today, if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts as you did in the rebellion." Who were they who heard and rebelled? Were they not all those Moses led out of Egypt? And with whom was he angry for forty years? Was it not with those who sinned, whose bodies fell in the desert? And to whom did God swear that they would never enter his rest if not to those who disobeyed?
Hebrews 3:1-4:10 So we see that they were not able to enter, because of their unbelief. Therefore, since the promise of entering his rest still stands, let us be careful that none of you be found to have fallen short of it. For we also have had the gospel preached to us, just as they did; but the message they heard was of no value to them, because those who heard did not combine it with faith. Now we who have believed enter that rest, just as God has said, "So I declared on oath in my anger, 'They shall never enter my rest.'" And yet his work has been finished since the creation of the world.
Hebrews 3:1-4:10 For somewhere he has spoken about the seventh day in these words: "And on the seventh day God rested from all his work." And again in the passage above he says, "They shall never enter my rest." It still remains that some will enter that rest, and those who formerly had the gospel preached to them did not go in, because of their disobedience.
Hebrews 3:1-4:10 Therefore God again set a certain day, calling it Today, when a long time later he spoke through David, as was said before: "Today, if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts.“ For if Joshua had given them rest, God would not have spoken later about another day. There remains, then, a Sabbath — rest for the people of God; for anyone who enters God's rest also rests from his own work, just as God did from his.
Hebrews 4:11-16 Let us labour therefore to enter into that rest, lest any man fall after the same example of unbelief. For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart. Neither is there any creature that is not manifest in his sight: but all things are naked and opened unto the eyes of him with whom we have to do.
Hebrews 4:11-16 Seeing then that we have a great high priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our profession. For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin. Let us therefore come boldly unto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need.
1 Corinthians 10:1-15 Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea; And did all eat the same spiritual meat; And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ. But with many of them God was not well pleased: for they were overthrown in the wilderness.
1 Corinthians 10:1-15 Now these things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted. Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them; as it is written, The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play. Neither let us commit fornication, as some of them committed, and fell in one day three and twenty thousand. Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents. Neither murmur ye, as some of them also murmured, and were destroyed of the destroyer.
1 Corinthians 10:1-15 Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come. Wherefore let him that thinks he stands take heed lest he fall. There hath no temptation taken you but such as is common to man: but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it. Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee from idolatry. I speak as to wise men; judge ye what I say.
Spiritual Application For Christians Many Christians today are "in between" in their spiritual lives. They have been delivered from Egypt by the blood of the Lamb, but they have not yet entered into their inheritance in Christ. Canaan is an illustration of our spiritual inheritance in Christ (Eph 1:3- Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ) an inheritance that must be claimed by obedient faith. Canaan was also a land of battles and blessings, as is the Christian life today. Sadly, too many Christians come to the place of decision (their own Kadesh-Barnea), and they fail to enter into their inheritance by faith!
Spiritual Application For Christians Instead of being conquerors (as described in Joshua), they become wanderers, as described in Numbers. They have been obedient to a point but they falter and fail to fulfill God's purpose for their lives. They will not trust God to overcome the giants, knock down the walls, and give them the inheritance that He has promised. They will not cross Jordan and step out by faith to claim the blessings that Christ has promised them. As a result of their lack of obedient faith, they will not inherit the blessed inheritance God has prepared for those who serve Him in obedience.
GOD LEADING HIS PEOPLE (9-10) God gives wisdom in problems (9:1-14). It was now the second year after Israel's wonderful deliverance from Egypt, and the nation was to observe the Passover. This feast was the constant reminder that their redemption depended on the blood of the lamb and the power of God. Every blessing they experienced came through the blood, even as with the church to-day (Eph 1:3ff). Certain men had been ceremonially defiled by a dead body, and they needed to know the mind of God about whether they could participate in the feast.
GOD LEADING HIS PEOPLE (9-10) God gives wisdom in problems (9:1-14). Moses graciously admitted that he did not know the answer, but that he would ask the Lord. The Lord permitted these men to observe the feast later, in the second month, which shows that God knows and considers challenges when He gave His law and in His ultimate wisdom provides for every contingency in His perfect law.
He gives direction in our daily walk (9:15-23). God Is Always There For Obedient People We have seen the guiding cloud before in Ex 13:21-22. It is encouraging to know that the same God who saves and keeps us also guides us in our journey. God wanted to guide the nation into the place of His blessing, but their unbelief hindered Him. Through the Word, God leads us today"always... by day and... by night" It would have been foolish, in fact, dangerous, for the camp or any part of it to move without direction from God.
God Is Always There For Obedient People He gives direction in our daily walk (9:15-23). The Jews were a pilgrim people, living in tents, and they had to be ready to move at a moment's notice. Verse 22 makes it clear that God's leading is beyond human calculation: sometimes the cloud would tarry a few days, sometimes a month, and sometimes as long as a year. At times God would lead them in the daytime, and at other times in the darkness (v. 21). But it made no difference so long as God was the one leading. Where ever He leads we should follow and not murmur or argue about it.
God Leads His People He warns the people. In chapter 10 we see that the priests were to blow the trumpets when the cloud started moving. The trumpets were also used to call the congregation to assemble and also to announce the feast days and holy days and also to warn of outside dangers. God warns us through His word today. He tells us what to do and what to abstain from. 2 Timothy 3:16, 17- All scripture given by inspiration of God is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for instruction in righteousness… God leads in an orderly manner and is not concerned with human wisdom. His ways are beyond human ideas and much better—in fact they are the wonderful words of life.
God Chastens Those He Loves After chapter 10 it is amazing that after all God had done for Israel that they would still murmur and have little or no faith- but then we are the same today aren’t we? In chapter 11, Moses is disappointed terribly with the people for complaining about the manna and longing for things from Egypt. They had it so good but all they could do is look back at their past and long for it- how like us that is. We came out of the filth of the world, but still we long to be like the nations round about and forget what things were really like in the world we left. This is a tool of Satan and he is good at getting us to look back (1 Peter. 5:8). God punished the people for this and they asked Moses to pray for them for relief and he did and God relented.
12 Spies Are Dispatched In Number s 13 and 14 we see that the people sent in the spies. Deut. 1:20-33 tells us that this was the idea of the people and not God. God permitted this but it was not necessary for God had told the people they could take the land and what the land was like.
12 Spies Are Dispatched 10 spies returned with the report that the land was as God had said, but that they could not take it because the people were like giants and that Israel was as grasshopper’s in their sight. Only Joshua and Caleb said they could do what God said they could and they risked their life to try to get the people to obey God. The people tried to kill them. Many today want to get mad at the person who tells them the truth rather than repent and obey the Lord.
Authority Is Challenged Korah, Dathan and Abiram defy the authority of Moses and Aaron. Moses and Aaron did not defend themselves they let God do it. In chapter 16 we see that over 15000 people died for defying God’s authority that He had delegated to Moses and Aaron. Korah, Dathan and Abiram’s rebellion was defeated. God’s authority was further established through Moses and Aaron. This is the instance where God caused Aaron’s rod to bud (it is one of the items later placed in the ark of the covenant.
Moses Disobeys God After the death of Miriam, the people begin to murmur that they have no water. God tells Moses to speak to the rock and water would come out- Moses smote the rock and in doing so he disobeyed the Lord’s command . He exalted himself and not God. He acted without authority and was not allowed to go into the promised land. What a tragedy. Some might say, how legalistic? Others might say- what difference did it make how the water came out- the end was the same? Why would God make such a big deal out of such a small matter?
Many Rebel Today When God said speak to the rock- he meant speak Speaking and Smiting are not the same thing. It matters that we do exactly what God says. Singing is not playing (Col. 3:16; Eph. 5:19). Grace alone is not God’s plan. Faith alone is not God’s plan. Baptism in water is essential for remission of sins and salvation (Acts 22:16; Acts 2:38).
Balaam Prophesies Numbers 23-24 tell us of a man named Balaam who was asked by Balak to curse Israel and every time Balaam opened his mouth he blessed Israel instead. In chapter 25 we see Balaam’s greed. He wanted the money and honor Balak had offered. He tells Balak how to defeat Israel- invite them to share in their heathen sacrificial feasts and corrupt them with idolatry and lust.
Balaam Prophesies Balaam knew that the Jewish men would be tempted by the Moabite women as they engaged in horribly immoral acts in worshipping Baal. One man was so bold that he brought a Moabite woman right into the camp of Israel and commit fornication with her. Aaron’s grandson Phineas killed the man and woman and stopped the plague on Israel but not before 24,000 had died. This was the greatest loss of life Israel suffered due to their blatant sin.
Numbers 33-36 The land inheritance of the tribes is given looking forward to the time when Israel would possess the land. The tribes are assigned their portions and the Levites are assigned their cities and the cities of refuge are defined. These cities were for a haven for those who had accidentally killed someone- not for pre-meditated murder. The accidental killer could have safe haven as long as he stayed in the city of refuge. If he left then the avenger of blood could slay him.
Deuteronomy- The Name "Deuteronomy " in Greek means "second law." It comes from Deut 17:18, and also from the fact that in this book Moses was restating the Law to the new generation. This book does not contain a new Law, it is a second stating of the original Law.
Purpose Of The Book Of Deuteronomy They were a new generation. The old generation (except for Caleb and Joshua) had perished in the wilderness, and the new generation needed to hear the Law again. We all have short memories, and these people were twenty years of age and under when the nation failed decades before at Kadesh-Barnea. It was important that they know God's Word afresh and realize how important it is to obey God.