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Leviticus The Priests’ Manual Types of Sacrifices Sin offering . Got rid of contamination to sanctuary caused by transgressions Burnt offering . Expressed worshipers deepest thanksgiving and dedication. Peace offering . A meal shared by worshipping family.

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leviticus

Leviticus

The Priests’ Manual

types of sacrifices
Types of Sacrifices
  • Sin offering. Got rid of contamination to sanctuary caused by transgressions
  • Burnt offering. Expressed worshipers deepest thanksgiving and dedication.
  • Peace offering. A meal shared by worshipping family.
  • Sacrifice of Christ on the cross expresses all three of these functions.
chief events at sinai p
Chief Events at Sinai (P)
  • Erection and dedication of tabernacle (Exod 25-31; 35-40)
  • Ordination of priesthood (Leviticus 8)
  • First sacrifice (Leviticus 9)
    • Fire came out from the LORD and consumed the burnt offering and the fat on the altar; and when all the people saw it, they shouted and fell on their faces. 9:24
old calendars
Old Calendars
  • Exod 23:14-17
    • Unleavened bread
    • Harvest
    • Ingathering
  • Exod 34:18-26
    • Unleavened bread
    • Weeks
    • Ingathering
later calendar leviticus 23
Later Calendar Leviticus 23
  • Sabbath
  • Passover on 1-14 and Unleavened bread on 1-15 to 1-21
  • Weeks
  • New Year on 7-1
  • Day of Atonement on 7-10
  • Feast of Tabernacles 7-15
day of atonement lev 16
Day of Atonement (Lev 16)
  • Only time of year when High Priest allowed in Holy of Holies
  • High Priest offered bull as a sin offering for himself and his household
  • Blood from goat--purged sanctuary of defilement from transgressions; altar atoned for with blood from bull and goat
  • Goat for Azazel--sins of people carried away
sabbatical year jubilee year
Sabbatical year; Jubilee year
  • Sabbatical or Seventh year
  • Jubilee after seven sabbatical years
    • “Proclaim liberty throughout the land”
    • Land returned to family which originally owned it
    • Yahweh alone owns land; we are resident aliens
    • slaves freed
    • no record of historical observance, but...
other social laws in ot
Other Social Laws in OT
  • Exod 21: male slaves freed in 7th year; Deut 15 male+ female slaves freed in 7th year; Lev 25 slaves freed at Jubilee
  • Deut 15:1-6 debts cancelled in 7th year; Deut 15:7-11 Do not refuse a loan as sabbatical year approaches; Lev 25 debts cancelled at Jubilee
  • Lev 26:34; 2 Chr 36:21 land enjoyed its sabbaths during the exile
clean and unclean
Clean and Unclean
  • Holy--Common/Normal; Clean---Unclean
  • Health reasons? Trichinosis? Easily spoiled shellfish?
  • Avoidance of Canaanite/Babylonian practices?
  • Discipline (Letter of Aristeas)
clean and unclean cont
Clean and Unclean (cont.)
  • Pollution occurs when bodily processes disturb the harmony of the cosmos
  • Milgrom: life vs. death (blood, semen)
  • M. P. Carroll: nature and culture. (Animals which eat meat are trespassing in the realm of culture)
  • Many forbidden animals = the surrounding nations; few clean animals = the Israelites
kinds of unclean things
Kinds of unclean things
  • priestly contact with the dead 21:1-4
  • women at childbirth 12:1-5
  • skin diseases (psoriasis or fungal) chaps 13-14 (give person an appearance of death)
  • menstruation 15:19-24; genital discharges 15:2-12, 25-27
  • animals that do not have cloven hoofs (camels) or that do not chew the cud (pigs-reviled in ANE; chthonic cults) chap 11
history of tabernacle
History of Tabernacle
  • Tent in wilderness period (inside or outside camp)
  • Tent, or building, at Shiloh (Eli and Samuel)
  • Tent of David
  • Temple of Solomon
  • P’s account gives us cross section through this whole history 1.25 tons of gold; 4 tons silver; 3 tons of bronze
tabernacle
Tabernacle
  • God “tabernacled” with Israel
  • Levites camped in inner circle
  • East: Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun (Leah’s children)
  • South: Reuben, Simeon (Leah’s children), and Gad (Zilpah-L)
  • West: Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin (Rachel’s children)
  • North: Dan (Bilhah-R); Asher (Zilpah-L), Naphtali (Bilhah-R)
slide14
Ark
  • Sign of Yahweh’s presence in Holy War
    • Arise, O Yahweh, and let your enemies be scattered (Num 10:35-36)
  • Cherubim on lid; deposited in sanctuary
  • Box to contain Decalogue (Deuteronomy)
  • Fate of ark? Jer 3:16-17; 2 Macc 2:4-8 (tent, ark, and incense altar)
  • Mercy Seat (post-exile)
what happened at sinai numbers 1 1 10 10
What Happened at Sinai Numbers 1:1-10:10
  • 1 Census of first generation
  • 5:11-31 Ordeal for woman accused of adultery
  • 6:22-27 Aaronic benediction
what happened in the wilderness num 10 11 20 13
What Happened in the Wilderness Num 10:11-20:13
  • 11:4-35 spirit of Moses put on 70 elders; Eldad and Medad prophesy in the camp
  • 12:1-16 Moses marries Cushite; Miriam leprous. “Has God spoken only through Moses?”
  • 13:1-14:45 spies: despising of the gift of the land led to death outside the land; alarm at strength of inhabitants
what happened in the wilderness numbers 10 11 20 13
What Happened in the Wilderness Numbers 10:11-20:13
  • 16 Korah-Dathan-Abiram
    • Korahites vs. exclusive priesthood of Aaron [consumed by fire]; Dathan and Abiram vs. authority of Moses--Egypt was a land flowing with milk and honey [swallowed by earth]
  • 17 Aaron’s rod: Levites preeminent over other tribes
  • 20 Miriam dies; Moses and Aaron excluded from the land
what happened from kadesh to the plains of moab numbers 20 14 36 13
What Happened from Kadesh to the Plains of Moab Numbers 20:14-36:13
  • 20:22-29 death of Aaron; Eleazar HP
  • 22:1-24:25 Balaam; Magic won’t work against Israel; archaic poetry
  • 25:1-5 Incident at Baal Peor
  • 25:6-18 Zeal of Phinehas
  • 26 Census of second generation
  • 27:1-11; 36:1-13 Daughters of Zelophehad