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Energy in the Atmosphere & Winds
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  1. Energy in the Atmosphere & Winds “The wind will blow, from high to low”

  2. Three ways to transfer energy: • Radiation - electromagnetic energy (light). • Can travel in a vacuum. • Conduction - heat is transferred directly from molecule to molecule. • Ex. Pot handle gets too hot to handle. • Convection - energy is transferred through the movement of gases or liquids. • Usually due to uneven heating.

  3. Winds • Basically, large scale convection currents with in the atmosphere.

  4. Pressure and Heat • Why does warmer air generally mean lower pressure? Is the air rising or falling? • Why does colder air generally mean higher pressure? Is the air rising or falling?

  5. Pressure Gradient

  6. Wind and Pressure

  7. Coriolis Effect

  8. Winds and The Coriolis Effect

  9. Once again! “The wind will blow, From high to low”

  10. If the Earth did not rotate: • Air rises at warmer equatorial areas. • Pressure is lower. • Air sinks at colder polar areas. • Pressure is higher. • Winds blow from polar highs to equatorial lows.

  11. But, the Earth does rotate! • Thus, we must account for the Coriolis Force! • This turning of the winds divides them into wind belts. • Essentially a series of convection cells.

  12. Global Wind Belts 1 • Trade Winds: located between 0° & 30°. • Air Rises at equator and sinks at 30° N & S. • Northeast and Southeast Trade winds. • At equator, a zone called the doldrums. • At 30° N and S called the “Horse Latitudes”

  13. Global Wind Belts 2 • Westerlies: located between 30° & 60°. • Northern hemisphere - SW winds. • Southern hemisphere - NW winds. • Polar Easterlies: between 60° and the poles. • Air rises at 60° N & S and falls at poles.

  14. Jet Streams • Bands of high-speed winds in both N and S hemispheres. • Found at 10 - 15 km, 100 km wide, 2-3 km thick. • Formed where polar and mid-latitude air come together. Great pressure differences create strong winds.

  15. Aloha! The Ocean Breeze. . . • What causes ocean breezes during the day and land breezes during the night?

  16. Sea Breezes 1

  17. Sea Breezes 2

  18. Sea Breezes 3

  19. Land Breezes

  20. Home Work Read Chapter 24.1